Hungary makes historic apology for its role in the Holocaust (2014) Hungary still murders Romani people

Hungary makes historic apology for its role in the Holocaust

Hungary, 27.1.2014 14:41, (ROMEA)
--ilustrační foto--

–ilustrační foto–

Speaking at the United Nations in New York, Hungary has apologized for the first time ever for the role the country played in the Holocaust. News agency MTI reported today that the apology was made last Thursday by the Hungarian Ambassador to the UN, Csaba Körösi.

“Until today at this forum, no one has ever expressed, on behalf of the Hungarian state, its responsibility for its role in the Holocaust,” MTI quoted Ambassador Körösi as saying. The ambassador went on to say he would be making two separate statements of Hungarian responsibility that Thursday.

The ambassador made the apology during an event held at the UN on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the Holocaust in Hungary, whose victims were Jewish and Romani people. He then repeated it at the opening of an exhibition called “Remembrance of the Holocaust in Hungary” which was put together by various organizations with the participation of the Hungarian mission to the UN.

“We owe the victims an apology because the Hungarian state was guilty of the Holocaust, on the one hand because the state did not manage to protect its citizens from annihilation, and on the other hand because it aided their mass murder and provided financial resources for it,” Körösi said during a press conference at the New York headquarters of the United Nations to launch a series of events dedicated to the Holocaust. Hungary is commemorating the 70th anniversary this year of the transport of more than 430 000 Hungarian Jews to the Nazi death camps, deportations that began shortly after the German invasion of the country.

The problem of anti-Semitism is currently alive again in Hungary due to the controversial ultra-right Jobbik movement there. Its members reject Hungary’s responsibility for the murder of Jewish people during WWII and are notorious for making anti-Semitic declarations.

Recently the government of Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán generated even more bad blood with a plan to erect a large monument in Budapest to be unveiled on the anniversary of the German occupation of Hungary in March 1944. Representatives of Hungary’s Jewish communities protested the move, which critics consider part of efforts to obscure the responsibility of the former representatives of Hungary and its local security forces at the time for the deportation of the Jews.

ČTK, translated by Gwendolyn Albert
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Hungary: Life in prison for murdering Romani people

9.5.2015 14:14

Yesterday the Associated Press reported that a Hungarian appeals court has upheld the sentencing of four men responsible for attacks on Romani people during which six individuals, including a five-year-old boy, died in 2008 and 2009. Three perpetrators were sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole in 2013 and the appeals court has now agreed with that verdict.

The court also upheld the original 13-year sentence for the fourth man involved. According to the indictment, the three perpetrators attacked Romani settlements near small villages in central and eastern Hungary from July 2008 to August 2009, setting Romani dwellings on fire and shooting people dead as they fled.

There were reportedly nine such attacks during which the perpetrators used firearms, grenades, and Molotov cocktails. The fourth defendant drove the getaway car during the group’s last two attacks.

The racist violence shocked the entire country and led to accusations that the police were not sufficiently protecting members of the Romani minority. In addition to the fatalities, five Romani people were seriously injured during these anti-Romani pogroms.

According to the indictment, the men shot 78 rounds of ammunition, threw 11 Molotov cocktails and endangered 55 people total. The victims are still feeling the consequences of the attacks to this day.

As the sister of a 45-year-old woman who was murdered by one attack in the village of Kisleta said, their 81-year-old mother “still cries three times a day” over the attack that took her daughter’s life. The victim’s 13-year-old daughter was also seriously wounded when the village was assaulted.

The group of culprits was arrested on 21 August 2009 in the town of Debrecen. In the indictment, the prosecutor said the perpetrators were motivated by racial hatred during all of their crimes and prepared their attacks “with military precision” because they wanted to terrorize the entire Romani community.

ČTK, translated by Gwendolyn Albert
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Remembering the dead in Hungary: An example of civic engagement

Remembering the dead in Hungary: An example of civic engagement

It’s impossible to detach public history and collective memory from contemporary politics. How a society portrays the past is determined by current realities, contemporary values or interests, as well as the dominant, “preferred” narratives of history. But the government and public institutions don’t have a monopoly over the past ; where civic engagement is strong, grassroots organizations and local activists have the agency to alter the dominant historical narrative or, indeed, offer a new one altogether. When I was in Budapest a couple of weeks ago, I witnessed two striking examples of how a sense of civic engagement can influence the politics of memory.

The "alternative" Holocaust memorial in Budapest's Freedom Square/Szabadság Tér. Photo: Christopher Adam.

I often tell friends who are planning to visit Budapest, that the Hungarian capital’s most important and most telling monument is an alternative Holocaust memorial established in Freedom Square (Szabadság tér), just over a year ago, when Prime Minister Viktor Orbán government began constructing a monstrous monument commemorating Hungary’s occupation by Nazi Germany and portraying the country as a passive, innocent victim of the Germans. A group of remarkably dedicated activists erected their own “makeshift” monument consisting of photographs of “ordinary” victims, personal mementos, shoes, votive candles, flowers and rocks. These activists communicate and organize through Facebook. Not only do they now form a coherent community, but they are starting to redefine Freedom Square. Anyone can add to the memorial and it changes from month-to-month. In stark contrast to the grandiose and static bronze heroes on horseback, this monument is modest, but it’s also dynamic and a powerful example of how to challenge (and deconstruct) the grand narrative of history.

Alternative Holocaust memorial in Freedom Square. Photo: Christopher Adam.

The only reason this monument has remained untouched by Hungarian authorities–who are distinctly unsympathetic to its message–is thanks to the commitment of about three dozen activists who are present each and every day in the square. They hand out multilingual information sheets to tourists, they are a sign of constant resistance to the ever-present police officers, who linger in pairs, around the largely abandoned government monstrosity that looms over the votive candles and mementos. It’s critical to note, that since the government monument–situated about three meters away from the alternative memorial–was constructed without any input from the affected community and from historical “stakeholders,” it attracts no interest, respect nor attention. Passers-by only see a living, organic, grassroots reflection of history that now partially encircles it. And–most importantly–these organizers, students, historians, essayists, pensioners, children and grandchildren of Holocaust survivors are an overt sign of resistant. One of the regulars in Freedom Square, actor Róbert Garai, won a grant last year from the Hungarian government, as part of a series of official Holocaust commemorations. Mr. Garai handed back the circa $10,000 that he received, in order to protest the government’s blatant falsification of the country’s World War II history.

The alternative Holocaust memorial in Freedom Square/Szabadság tér. Photo: Christopher Adam.

During the winter months and in the early spring, twice a week the “guardians” of this living and ever-changing memorial organize public talks on issues related to the Holocaust, Hungary’s responsibility in the murder of 600,000 Hungarian Jews, contemporary antisemitism and racism, as well as the broader question of civil liberties in Hungary. Organizers spend a half hour assembling a tent in the middle of the square for these talks, and then another half hour removing it. As darkness falls on Freedom Square, you could hear the buzz of drills and hand-held tools disassembling the tent, while a handful of participants linger and quietly reflect in front of the glowing votives.

Public talk in Freedom Square on March 19th, 2015...this was the 71st anniversary of Nazi Germany's occupation of Hungary, on March 19th, 1944.

On March 19th, I gave a talk along with historian Iván Szegő (from the 1956 Institute). The discussion was moderated by prominent civil rights activist Eszter Garai-Édler, who set the tone and focus of the discussion, as the tent filled with about 35 participants. “An entire generation came of age in an environment filled with anti-Semitic hate during the interwar period. This isn’t any different today. Isn’t it frightening that a generation of university-educated Hungarians, who have every chance of obtaining positions of political leadership, has been socialized and taught within this antisemitic environment…in an environment where Miklós Horthy is considered a role model?”–noted Ms. Garai-Édler.

Eszter Garai-Édler in Freedom Square on March 19th, 2015. Photo: Christopher Adam.

We spoke about the fact that Hungary was a trailblazer when it came to antisemitic legislation, and that Hungarian authorities were “overachievers” when it came to orchestrating and administering the most rapid deportation of Jews in all of war-torn Europe. Adolf Eichmann had, in fact, commented on the enthusiasm of Hungarian authorities, in terms of collaboration and the deportation of the country’s Jews. Ms. Garai-Édler told me that young right-wing Hungarians do, occasionally, show up to these talks and they often come to present the stereotypes about Jews and to question the narrative of Hungarian responsibility for the Holocaust that these talks and that the alternative monument aim to explore. The activists allow these voices of right-wing dissent to speak, they are listened to, but the hope is that those who come with prejudice will leave Freedom Square with at least a little more openness to dialogue and to tolerance.

Eszter Garai-Édler, who was the recipient of the Radnóti Anti-Racism award, leaves white orchids one evening at the Szabadság tér memorial. Photo: Anna Vörös.

***

While in Budapest, I witnessed another powerful example of how younger generations of engaged Hungarians take it upon themselves to remember the dead and to reflect on some of the most difficult episodes in twentieth century Hungarian history. Szilárd Kalmár is the chair of Hungary’s Left Party (Balpárt), a left-wing movement formed just over a year ago, which sees the mainstream Hungarian centre-left as having little or nothing to say on issues of social justice. This in turn has allowed for the far-right Jobbik to build its support even among opposition voters who traditionally would have voted for the Socialists. Mr. Kalmár is a thirty-something Hungarian who during the week is employed as a social worker in Budapest’s somewhat infamous 8th District. The borough,  home to over 75,000 residents, is known for its glaring poverty, high unemployment, relatively large Roma population and, most recently, is where new migrants to the European Union congregate, before trying to head west.

Mr. Kalmár finished up serving behind a counter in a soup kitchen, which also doubles as the headquarters of the Left Party, as well as a community space with internet access for the local population. The tight space is filled with multilingual posters on anti-racism initiatives and was teaming with local residents, who were either having a meal, were using one of the computer terminals or were chatting with the volunteers. Mr. Kalmár offered me a plate of chicken paprikás, but was then keen to take me on a historical tour showcasing the 8th District’s social democratic and workers’ movement heritage. We walked past buildings that once housed the offices of key left-wing papers, social democratic political movements, a graveside monument for late Hungarian Prime Minister Mihály Károlyi, and he showed me the locations of World War II massacres of 8th District Jews. It was quite an eye-opener, even though I had been familiar with much of the 8th district and some of its local history.

We then walked over to the Kerepesi Street cemetery, which–for left-wingers–is perhaps best known for its massive Workers’ Pantheon and for the grave of Hungarian communist leader János Kádár, the father of “Goulash Communism.” But that isn’t what Mr. Kalmár showed me. He took me to an abandoned corner of the cemetery. Overgrown with trees, an endless tangle of branches and weeds, we came to the untended grave of former Social Democratic government minister Ernő Garami, who served in the revolutionary cabinets of 1918 and 1919, and had previously been the editor-in-chief of the Népszava daily paper. Mr. Garami started off his career as a mechanic, but ended up being one of the iconic (yet by today, largely forgotten) figures of the early twentieth century Hungarian left.

Mr. Kalmár tried to contact Mr. Garami’s descendants, who showed no interest in tending to his grave. After getting in touch with the Kerepesi Street cemetery, Mr. Kalmár was told that as long as the grave did not appear to be completely abandoned, the administration would not remove the tombstone, nor would they excavate and dispose of the remains. So Mr. Kalmár has taken it upon himself to clear the area of weeds and to visit the grave, at regular intervals, with a red carnation.

Szilárd Kalmár, a social worker in Budapest's 8th District, is the only person to tend to the abandoned grave of a prominent Hungarian left-wing political leader. Photo: Christopher Adam.

In my mind, these are striking examples of civic engagements in Hungary. Unfortunately, it is a small-handful of Hungarians–community activists, social workers, artists, public thinkers–who are leading the way, while much of the population is completely disattached from the public discourse. Fear undoubtedly plays an important role. People like Mr. Kalmár or Ms. Garai-Édler, and the handful of outspoken activists, risk losing their jobs and livelihood, and certainly of being labelled with any number of pejoratives by government circles. Unpatriotic, treasonous, Bolshevik, communist–these are just some of the labels that come their way. Yet none of this seems to deter them at all.

If you open your eyes and look close enough, you can see the flickering flame of civic courage in Budapest.

About Hungary, Nazis, The Holocaust and Veronika Hompo (and Veronika Hompo’s aliases on Joy of Satan and Facebook)

https://hungariancultistnazis.wordpress.com/about/

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This blog exposes to sheer stupidity and the lies of Joy of Satan along with bringing to light the hate, stalking and abuse by their Hungarian cult member(s). Joy of Satan has long been known in America for its Neo-Nazi affiliations. Andrea Herrington’s husband was the founder of NSM, and when Neo-Nazi’s found out that Maxine was Clifford’s wife and not “Aryan,” but a mix breed in their eyes, it almost completely destroyed the NSM due to the controversy and infighting. This began in 2006, long before the ignorant Hungarians (read as one angry Hungarian) logged into the internet and looked for something to grasp on to like teens do to battle their parents. Long ago, JoS was exposed for their problems, their use of others’ works without permission, their lies and their true agenda. They are Nazis. They are racists, bigots, homophobic weak followers of a bastardized version of Satanism that mainly focuses on hate and “protection” from others, in other words, those who are not part of JoS and not faux Satanists; they admit they are not strong and they insult Lucifer by consistently reminding each other to protect themselves from other people and gods. They all have an obsessively fearful, paranoid and horrific fear of people who are of the Jewish faith, the religion. These mentally ill paranoid Nazis, posing as “Satanists,” are convinced Jews are a race and since all of the clergy are suffering from severe systematized delusions, baseless suspicions and worries about others, mostly complete strangers on the internet, they spend their days and nights fixated upon users they then premeditate to attack in forms of abuse, stalking, harassment and bullying.

"Hitler was a cowardly faggot. Most people on JoS think Hitler was a fag and know he was an animal abuser" -- current JoS member of 2 years whom sent in info about HP's and the fake usernames of the supposed large amount of Hungarians who all joined at the same time period

“Hitler was a cowardly faggot. Most people on JoS think Hitler was a fag and know he was an animal abuser” — current JoS member of 2 years who sent in info about HP’s and the fake usernames of the supposed large amount of Hungarians who all joined at the same time period

Many of them are blatantly homophobic, as can be seen in scythianwarrior’s blogs and within former JoS members’ private emails revealed. All of the truth was openly published by Maxine herself and other members of JoS long ago. The members and former members who came forward told everything and provided their proof. What goes on now is nonsense for angry teenagers or simpletons who are unable to realize fictional tales from actual facts. Facts are painful. Deep within JoS’s site there is some valuable information, but is it actually from JoS? No, it’s stolen. Most of Andrea Herrington’s postings (Herrington is High Priestess (LOL) Maxine) are plagiarized and that has been proven by numerous sources for almost a decade.

Again, the site is bigoted and racist, and though they claim they accept gays, many members are out there bashing gays on their own blogs or on their Facebook profiles. Veronika Hompo and her 30 to 60 alias Facebook profiles have had at the least, usually more, a gay-bashing post over the years and in 2014 and 2015 there have been quite a few. Calling users “faggot” slips off her fingers as if it is acceptable. There’s a plethora of hypocrisy amongst the JoS clergy and all you need to do is look for ex-members. The blacks, the GLBT, the not all white who were all in some way pushed out by the fascist beliefs promoted by Joy of Satan ministries.

Veronika Hompo is a stranger to me. She was never on my friend list. But I know all about her and always have, since 2010. I, with my then boyfriend (now fiancé, a valid marriage under the law has not yet been obtained, but is that really the business of everyone?), said to stay away from her. I read every word she posted and every letter she sent. I saw every public posting the aggressive and mean sub-human posted. I said she was damaged and to stay away, to not try to be nice or good to her because it would never make a change in this one’s hollow soul. She was vulgar and too ecstatic enjoying the stalking abuse she did to strangers for another stranger (it was who she calls MM back then, it’s always someone else she gives up her entire life for), along with an even more aggressive and sociopath sub-human, Nadia Anett Kiss. (Is this really another living being or just another personality? Many people over the years have decided that “Nadia” is nothing more than Veronika’s strongest and most reckless and disobedient personality taken on when under stress or severe pressure.) I had spoken to a few other people in Europe, even back in Hungary, from these sub-humans’ friend lists, all in agreement that there were so many anger issues and deep rooted hate that nothing could change for them/her. Vegan? Possible. (*See bottom of this paragraph for updated info) Though as it is now, it’s come to light that Veronika’s Korean personality has denounced veganism as simply stupid. (Her main personality has now admitted she has also shunned veganism and come clean; she was eating eggs and other animals for years while attacking others online for being vegetarian and not militant vegan. She was using animal products, the eggs, dairy, eating fish — at the very moments she was tearing into strangers for the same “sins” and when Hompo would finish her plate of eggs and fish, she would carry on harassing the stranger who dedicated his or her life to rescuing animals from death, stalking them, posting public threats, all the the while this psychotic woman nearing 30 years old was eating animals and when she could, killing chickens for her old, dying relatives. Does it matter though? No, it doesn’t. They do not follow a vegan lifestyle. Hate is not part of veganism. These are beings that enjoy negative energy and preying upon others. So come into play JoS; it makes sense. They found a “home” for their roots in hatred. One only need use Google to find hate from both that traces back years, actual aggressive hate and stalking of strangers around the globe. Warning friends of mine to not try to make peace with these people was all I could do, all we could do as people who know Hungary and have travelled beyond its borders and lived in many places. Leaving was the best event in our lives. Living with people of tolerance and acceptance and in a country with no “Veronika’s” at every other turn of a corner, a breath of fresh air every day we awaken.

*Veronika Hompo has denounced veganism for her version, rather, JoS’s version of Satanism. The former militant psycho of vegans, the super-bitch VEGAN POLICE SUPREME COMMANDER, now eats “humanely murdered” animals. Oh, good for her! Such a good woman, only humanely slaughtered animals, and organic to boot! So caring of her kind soul *GAG and PUKE!* This Borderline personality psychotic used to email her friends asking them to help her tear apart people who ate meat or dairy, and now the hypocrite is using some utter bullshit excuses to suck the HP’s virtual dick so she won’t accidentally out herself for the back-stabbing WORM she actually is; towards him and towards all of the HP’s and clergy within JoS. Veronika Hompo doesn’t think any of them are worth shit. Yes, you know who she thinks is the most inferior within Joy of Satan. HP Don Danko; HP Mageson666. She said she’d love to spit on him. (any of them who are NOT aryan are not worthy to her at all; she has said she suspects many of them have Jewish DNA and it makes her very uncomfortable) Only she is worthy is her mind, after all, she’s told them time and time again—she’s the only true aryan and her bloodline is so pure is goes back to when the earth formed it’s fucking crust, before dinosaurs even roamed the land, before anything existed!—there was the Hompo bloodline, the pure alien DNA sent by Enki in a donut-shaped spaceship right to Earth to plant her familys’ genes so she could be the purest HungARYAN on the whole fucking globe. Yes. It’s all true, and you can ask Satan, he will even confirm this information.

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Veronika Hompo hilariously sucking HP Mageson666’s virtual dick in order to keep herself out of suspicion and in their good graces. LMAO! Good try, but she’s not fooling those who have known her slimy worm ass for over 4 years! Fucking DNA disaster, the deluded psycho is probably missing a chromosome and a few thousand brain cells.

Funny (in the NOT ‘ha ha’ way) how this lunatic mentally deranged FUCKTARD that’s always been thought of as “off” and “sketchy” or “psychotic” and “a manic fucking crazybitch” on social media suddenly tried to play the victim card while at the same time claiming it’s all the fault of Jews or Roma Gypsies! The fucked in the head bitch was close friends with Jews, gypsies, Christians, Buddhists, Mormons, Seventh Day Adventists (for fucks sake, seriously) and she still is friends with Koreans who passionately love Pope Francis. All the Koreans this nut is faux friends with on Facebook are Christians. Add to the har hars here, she hates rock music and metal. Veronika Hompo is a classical lover, period. She’s mocked rock music for years. Are we all to believe that suddenly, because HP Mageson posted about Led Zeppelin, that she’s loved them since she was a child? For fucking real? The bitch never once posted even so much as a Top 40 track on her profile. Her shit was all classical music, give or take a few Korean songs so she can ass-kiss those Koreans on her list. The girl is crazy in the coconut. Out to lunch. No one’s home upstairs, people! Anything up there in her head is dark and hateful.

Those who can read and know right from wrong can easily understand the difference between hate and lies, and victims. Veronika Hompo and the aliases and Nadia—the defiant and rebellious personality that attacks without any empathy, without a bit of care that actions have consequences—the stalkers of high abuse, they are sub-human hate and unacceptable in any society.

Veronika Hompo is everyone?
She has a mental disease/illness, many have asked her to stop abusing them, but Veronika Hompo can’t help herself; refuses to stop. She threatened lives of children of many people around the world, starting with young children in Australia. She makes her way around the globe finally making her focus on her friend for many many years, making her blogs about her friend. Veronika Hompo is every user from Hungary on the Joy of Satan forums. She suffers from Dissociative identity disorder (DID). DID doesn’t give her a free pass to abuse anyone. A mental disorder doesn’t excuse her from harassing people and being dangerously abusive. DID is as common as Bipolar or Schizophrenia. It’s not a mythical illness and it’s not just a TV and movie mental disorder. It’s real and Veronika has displayed symptoms for years.

Veronika was born a Christian and admitted so on various websites. She has deleted this information, but it has already been spidered by the archives. Look for it, it can be found. It’s in her own words and on more than one site. Leave a comment if you wish for a JPEG to be posted of her Page which she lists her religion as Christian. It is NOT Facebook nor any of the usual social sites, so she slipped up and forgot to cover her lies when she left a few trails of her true past available to those she stalked and abused with her aggressive hostility and schizophrenic hallucinations.

Joy of Satan Ministries must not be too smart to have yet figure out all the Hungarians are Veronika Hompo—schizophrenic, bipolar or DID—an angry aggressive and mentally damaged sub-human that cannot keep herself under control, lashing out at people on the internet, in her real life she attacks people at the market and in the streets, screams and yells at the people at the place she goes to use internet since she tries to conceal her hardware ID by switching devices at the internet cafe or going to the church to use innocent members’ cell phones, even to the Jewish synagogue she will borrow a tablet, an iPad or device to go to Joy of Satan and pretend she is Scythian Warrior or HungARYAN, even the time she pretended to be Kim Yoora*, she was herself, always is, Veronika Hompo playing pretend, as she does when she is her most favorite imaginary character, Nadia, Nadia Anett who goes by many names. Even Veronika takes on many names for herself, like Victoria, a Jewish name. Vicki is a common Jew name, many Jewish girls have been named Victoria since hundreds of years ago– Veronika chose this as her alias not as her fake persona. Born a Christian, I’ve never understood a reason to take on other names. When the nun asked of us to choose a name for our Christian name at the age of 13, I was confused. Why must we choose this? Someone we admire, she said. I had to do lessons, it was my grandparents doing, and their parents — put upon my mother to continue their beliefs. But a year later my own parents said to them, no, we say this stops now and we will be spiritual and have no need to enter a church to connect with a higher power (religious lessons stopped). My parents didn’t care if I received less gifts from family members who insisted we stay in the church and did I? No. Veronika Hompo chooses to be personalities to fool the Satanists and nazis so she can seem like the good doer and not the bad girl she is. She has always has many Jewish friends and had pleasure having them, so much that she wished she lived where her Jewish friends lived and could be with them and not with Hungarians. She’s only saying her lies to gain the trust of the satanists and nazis because she lost all her friends, Jews, Christians and non-religious and the truth is that those with even blood of either were not religious and didn’t care, they all treated Veronika Hompo so well and so kind that Veronika knew she always had people who cared about her with full trust. Now she only lies and if she keeps lying, karma will come tenfold and karmic retributions she must be aware of, and they will do her in, for she has done wrong to many and those she has lied about and harmed, karma will come to her for. Satan is not going to help her, for even he doesn’t approve of a liar. Joy of Satan members, maybe they can’t tell the truth, but Veronika will soon make a mistake and someone will realize and then look into it more close and find the real truth of Veronika Hompo or Victoria, whoever she would want to call herself that day or week with them while pretending she is doing their work for them and for satan, but really she is doing it for Veronika and for another reason she won’t reveal, a secret she holds and will never tell them or you, the reader here. It’s all in her emails.

Veronika Hompo is a manipulative and dangerous person. Holding the proof back is really not easy. Her sickness should be publicly known, the world online needs to beware of psychotic maniacs like this cyberbullying stalker who enjoys child exploitation and flirts with underage boys online all the time. She’s nealry 30 yet chooses young boys to associate herself with. Possibly she is not able to communicate and interact socially with those her own age. IRL she is a loner and outcast. She cannot keep a relationship with acquaintances for more than a handful of weeks at the most. She’s too unstable to have long-term relationships with people IRL and online. Eventually they see through the acting and false personality. Veronika Hompo is really incapable of holding in her true self; her cruel, evil and vile self that seeks to harm other, to inflict pain and suffering to others (including strangers). She has deluded herself with Hitler and Himmler and her fantasy world of aliens, UFO’s and barbarians as upstanding citizens of the planet. She’s off the deep end for a long time and not coming back.

*Kim Yoora is the name Veronika had used for years on Facebook. It’s the name of one of her favorite Korean singers. She uses Yoora Kim on JoS and now on Facebook. Her original Korean account was named 김요라, Kim Yoo Ra. Veronika was open about it being her, she didn’t hide it from anyone. Vegans who have now deleted and blocked her on Facebook have all confirmed that they were aware that Veronika Hompo was  김요라. She uses another alias account on JoS, a male user, whose name is also taken from that of a singer, a Hungarian singer. Her Béla Kováts user has a photo of a man fishing in Lake Michigan. She used the same photos of this man, from Michigan, USA, for the sock account profile she had on Facebook in that same name. His name is taken from that of an actor, a Hungarian actor. She has 3 sock accounts using names of people in the arts, but she thinks no one will realize what she is doing because most people she is using the accounts with are not familiar with these singers or actors. Gábor Gábriel is the name of a Hungarian singer, actor and painter. How much more evidence would one need to realize HungARYAN or scythianwarrior is purposely deceiving everyone?

Veronika Hompo’s Facebook profiles, from her real profile followed by sock accounts in chronological order. The newest and most recent, active sock/alias profiles will be listed at the bottom of the list and updated accordingly.

Veronika Hompo https://www.facebook.com/170588kng
Nadia A. Kiss https://www.facebook.com/kdrseoykdxyfwcr
Erzsebet Horvath https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100002854374945
Elizabeth Ho https://www.facebook.com/ieui9844KNVVEWWoyc4906825329
김요라 https://www.facebook.com/vrildamen
김요라 https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100005487735189
Istvan Nemeth https://www.facebook.com/istvan.nemeth.1675275
Adél Kassai https://www.facebook.com/adel.kassai
Viktória Venus https://www.facebook.com/viki.feher86
Adél Kassai https://www.facebook.com/adel.kassai
Prska Red https://www.facebook.com/piroska.piros.33
Gábor Barabás https://www.facebook.com/dmmwvb209opq977896nxyvcu
Tamas Varnay https://www.facebook.com/tamas.varnay.9
Tamas Varnay https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100007165651017
Szabolcs Mate https://www.facebook.com/szabolcs.mate.7
Béla Kováts https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100008343046076
Szittya Harcos https://www.facebook.com/harcos.szittya
Szittya Harcos https://www.facebook.com/iskit.savasci
Anette N. Petit Mignon https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100005074726616
Nadia Varnay https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100007520025677
Set Nakt https://www.facebook.com/zetur.narul.1
Csaba Hong https://www.facebook.com/csaba.ho.1
Csaba Hong https://www.facebook.com/csaba.hong58
Andrea Polgar https://www.facebook.com/andrea.polgar.12
Anette N. Petit Mignon https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100005074726616
Nadia Varnay https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100007520025677
https://www.facebook.com/nadia.varnay
Béla Kováts (Scythian Warrior) https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100007090426175
Nadine Gentil Cher https://www.facebook.com/nadine.gentilcher
Nadine Gentil Cher http://www.facebook.com/nadine.gentilcher
Nadine Gentil Cher https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100008042504973
Dina Cher https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100008102478208
Kárpát Leánya https://www.facebook.com/karpat.leanya
Yoora Kim https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100004644255538
Szabolcs Maté https://www.facebook.com/szabolcs.mate.7
Nadia Kiss https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100004496385010
Yoora Kim https://www.facebook.com/vrildamen88
Gabor Barabas https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100004265025623
Tamas Varnay (Barabas Gabor) https://www.facebook.com/gabor.barabas.315
Ilona Horvath (Hompóné Erzsébet) https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100005246296383
Timea Wilhelm https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100004644255538
Belane Szittya Kovats (Scythian Warrior) https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100004719616326
Szittya Harcos https://www.facebook.com/szittya.harcos
Nadia Varnay Kiss https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100006576438985
Nadia Varnay Kiss https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100004753785714
Szabolcs Mate https://www.facebook.com/szabolcs.mate.737
Varnay Kiss Nadia https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100004128014827
Varnay Kiss Nadia https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100004450458843
Varnay Kiss Nadia https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100004654514841
Varnay Kiss Nadia https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100004784954874
Varnay Kiss Nadia https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100005943259019
Varnay Kiss Nadia https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100006620774846
Varnay Kiss Nadia https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100008415468056
Szabolcs Mate https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100004123998174
Szabolcs Mate https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100006891406212
Szabolcs Mate https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100007585395203
Szabolcs Mate https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100007684125423
Béla Kováts https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100007684035962
Béla Kováts https://www.facebook.com/bela.kovats.372
Nadia Varnay Kiss https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100005355257387
Nadine Gentil Cher https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100007627487397
Nadia Kiss https://www.facebook.com/nadia.kiss.142
Timea Wilhelm (Kim Yoora) https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100004644255538 (Veronika Hompo’s regurgitated Korean Profile.)
Nadia Kiss https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100008599656331
Réka Luca Szabó https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100008788620243
Nadia. A. Kiss https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100009117092873
Tivadar László Szép https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100008998210981
Gyula Galaczi https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100008723231548
Varnay Kiss Nadia https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100004128014827
신세기  https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100009191405440
Dorina Szabó https://www.facebook.com/balazs.nemet.90
Anouck De Rouvroy https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100010124676650
Tímea Wilhelm (김유라) https://www.facebook.com/timea.wilhelm.9
Tímea Wilhelm (김유라) https://www.facebook.com/wilhelm.timea666
Andrea Desdemona Horváth https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100009661601852
Balázs Szabó https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100009661601852
Zora Zvijezda https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100010530187552
Janos Gondar https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100009614532179
Barth Alice https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100010619325226
Alice Barth https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100010619325226
Linda Rehm https://www.facebook.com/linda.rehm.395
Atilla Boros https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100010583342417
András Barna https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100011158441482
Anouck de Rouvroy https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100012395044335
Maria Desič https://www.facebook.com/maria.desic.5
Anja Heß https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100012404403624
Peter Brosič http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100012337689320
Eldar Rashi https://www.facebook.com/eldar.rashi
Anja Heß Hess https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100012404403624
Anouck de Rouvroy https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100012495368738
Tom Butler https://www.facebook.com/butler.tom.7
Anouck de Rouvroy https://www.facebook.com/anouck.derouvroy
Zora Zvijezda https://www.facebook.com/zora.zvijezda.9
Anja Heß / Anja Hess https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100012420407200
Chandra Kamal https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100012454668904
Natasha Zvezda https://www.facebook.com/natasha.zvezda.5
Erienne Kavanagh https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100012743071932
Peter Ljubov https://www.facebook.com/peter.ljubov
Desdemona Daimon https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100012436749136
Ria Baal https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100012539349144
Anouck de Rouvroy https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100013084594593
Anouck de Rouvroy https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100013126126196
Estrella del Alba https://www.facebook.com/estrella.delalba.9026
Natalie Briant https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100013127436663
Estrella del Alba / Eszter Alba https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100013469622899
Anouck de Rouvroy https://www.facebook.com/anouck.derouvroy.3
Anita Toth https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100013105471160
Zora Zvijezda https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100013359726530
Desdemona Daimon https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100013583166395

 

Anett nadia Kiss https://plus.google.com/107802997476587915930
Balázs Németh https://plus.google.com/105131673565652833520
Béla Kováts https://plus.google.com/116046365448646843200
Veronika Hompo https://plus.google.com/u/3/103448124590903405915
Piroska Red https://plus.google.com/u/3/107878324019370420826
Nadya https://plus.google.com/u/0/109718335240242002791/posts
Viktória Fehér https://plus.google.com/u/0/103206975781837670763/posts
Veronika Hompo https://plus.google.com/u/0/103448124590903405915/posts
Anouck De Rouvroy https://plus.google.com/103817513763254064929/posts
Yoo-ra Kim https://plus.google.com/100991906523052393411/posts

If any of those profiles were actually real people, they would not have all been deleted at all. Since Facebook can see hardware ID’s they can deduct an alias account. Each account above except for Veronika Hompo herself was deleted as fraudulent and fake. Each person that had reported the profiles received a confirmation of deletion, a thank you and notice that Veronika Hompo would not be told who reported her fake profiles. Dozens of users reported her for each profile, just as they dozens upon dozens did years ago when she used multiples to harass strangers and abuse Terms of Use by bullying people she felt didn’t follow her rules. She wasn’t even following her own rules herself! she was never vegan, never cared about animals and she was always sending “Merry Christmas!” to users’ profiles in December. Not “Happy Yule” but MERRY CHISTMAS. Her alternate personality did the same. Nadia Anett Kiss always posted after Veronika Hompo logged off. As if this was not noticed by everyone she thought she was close to. 😀

Veronika Hompo, I am not who you keep accusing me of being and you are a sick sociopath psychotic. You attack the wrong person, you’re a vile whore and your alternate personalities you take on to post on the internet prove you need deep therapies in many areas, your brain isn’t healthy, your mind is damaged and your soul is black. You should only wish I was who you think I am, for she would have you in the darkest place. She pities you, she thinks you are nothing but pathetic and useless, a nobody and worthless, she asked me to not even say a word about you, said you weren’t worth words on the screen, that no one paid attention to you, they laugh at you, make fun of you and think you’re the craziest lunatic, but I got sick of you making your public assumptions and threats and then your most detestable fetishes you posted, your secret desires for things serial killers thoughts are made of, and
I think the world should know what a female stalker who is going to being killing people is thinking inside her very sick mind. You started with harassing, abuse, stalking then posting fantasies of how you want people to die, to feel their sickness, to slowly die, to kill their children, then you laughed, you post smileys about it, and the people all over the globe now will know you, Veronika Hompo, the soon to be serial killer for the Joy of Satan e-group, the one Hungarian user who pretended to be all these Hungarians who suddenly found JoS.

Everyone will soon know your secret, Veronika Victoria Nadia Adel Kim Scythian Nadine Gentil Gabor Bullshitter Non-Aryan Liar to “JOY of SATAN” maybe even your antagonist Kissyou was you, made for drama to show JoS you are some warrior woman with no restraints? Time will tell, and they will watch you when they see you are not what you say.

Veronika Hompo aka Nadia Kiss; Serial Killer in the making, her new “career” dedicated to the Joy of Satan Ministries and her “father Enki,” a fictitious deity created in a novel written by a Jewish author. After Veronika kills her first human prey, she will crave slaughtering moreso than ever. Does anyone actually think this sociopath is vegan? That was just a phase, a former fixation from a damaged mind. She focuses on something with passion every year or so, and with this focus and dedication she puts all her life into it. Prior to her version of satanism and satan, it was veganism and animal rights and animal liberation. That is no longer one of her cares. Before all of the above, it was to protect and serve a man, a stranger on the internet, and she did so as if he was her husband and lover. It’s part of her mental illnesses. Yes, that was plural. Surely everyone sees she suffers more than one, and sadly for her she is so sick she’s unable to behave sly and hide her diseases. She’s easily caught as soon as she comes out and logs on the internet. She’s a parasite and disease, she should be purged from the systems and left to her squalid life of poverty and filth.

She loathes the High Priests and Priestess’s of Joy of Satan. She sent an email privately to a “friend” explaining her ritual to murder VovinPrgel, another JoS clergy member. She has a deep hatred for HP Mageson yet pretends she has made some sort or peace with him. She made sure to privately tell someone on her friend list, who already ratted on her to another Satanist group, that she “hates that jew retard Don Danko” She called one a “whore and stupid dumb bitch” –HighPriestess Myla Limlal666, and him, “a dumb jew retard” –directly towards HP Mageson666; she only apologized so she could CONTROL ALL OF YOU in her own way, she thinks she controls YOU and she thinks she is better than High Priestess Maxine Dietrich, think that’s not true then go read all of her insane ramble and read it in native Hungarian! As the Nadia Kiss persona, she believes she is more powerful and far more intelligent and deserving of everything High Priestess Maxine Dietrich has, and she does feel she can take her position by over turning the flock against the other HP’s and Maxine. Read all her loony-tune posts talking to herself on her fake accounts on FB. She’s a fucking psychopath and has multiple personality disorder, no joke!

Dozens of FB users sent to this blog many emails and FB msg’s proving Hompo’s LIES on Joy of Satan about what she’s been telling them about her past relations.
Maybe those emails and messages should come public and be sent to the main JOS email since we’ve gotten the JOS email from Hompo’s threats to a few of the members there! Unhinged is she?! Well, we can prove she has been lying like a rug to all the HP’s and to these childish friends that fell for her manipulative headtrips on them.

Public image of Veronika Hompo posted by Hompo on her Facebook profile. She had stated she "is not a coward and won't hide herself" and wanted her photo public. This doesn't violate any Terms since Veronika Hompo (or Victoria. What name she goes by is no importance; all of these users who post filth like Whorepo want it public and make it public, they seek attention after years of being ignoredand unheard, sub-human nobodies that are barren and look decades older than their true chronological age. This image is from Veronika Hompo's profile many years ago, when she posted it she said it was an old photo back then. She is afraid to show her self, she knows she has become so ugly, old, haggard and dried up, no man wants her.

Public image of Veronika Hompo posted by Hompo on her Facebook profile. She had stated she “is not a coward and won’t hide herself” and wanted her photo public. This doesn’t violate any Terms since Veronika Hompo (or Victoria. What name she goes by is no importance; all of these users who post filth like Whorepo want it public and make it public, they seek attention after years of being ignored and unheard, sub-human nobodies that are barren and look decades older than their true chronological age.) This image is from Veronika Hompo’s profile many years ago, when she posted it she said it was an old photo back then. She is afraid to show her self, she knows she has become so ugly, old, haggard and dried up, no man wants her. Even this photo of almost 10 years ago or more shows signs of covering up flaws and disfigurements on this Hungarian inbred. The overuse of Photoshop or other photo editing software is clear. Her face is like a plastic sheet.

HUNGARY BEFORE AND AFTER THE GERMAN OCCUPATION

HUNGARY AFTER WORLD WAR I

Hungary had been on the losing side of World War I. After the announcement of punitive peace terms to be imposed on Hungary (which included the loss of 66 percent of Hungary’s prewar territory) were announced in 1919, the postwar coalition government resigned. The reins of power fell to a Socialist-Communist coalition under Communist leader Bela Kun. Kun proceeded to establish a short-lived “Soviet Republic.”

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This poster urges Jews to: “Protect Jewish interests. Do not buy from our enemies. Do not watch their movies.” Hungary, 1937-1938.

— Magyar Nemzeti Muzeum Torteneti Fenykeptar

When the Kun regime collapsed following a Romanian invasion in June 1919, Admiral Miklos Horthy, who had been an officer in the Austro-Hungarian navy, came to power at the head of a conservative-nationalist coalition. This coalition undid most of the democratic reforms promulgated in Hungary immediately after World War I. Assuming the position of regent for the Habsburg king who would never return to Hungary, Horthy presided for the next 24 years over an authoritarian, almost feudal system of aristocratic rule, which nevertheless had a functioning parliament and permitted political opposition. Among those who opposed the conservative-aristocratic oligarchy were radical nationalists and fascists of middle-class and working-class origin. Many of these politicians called for more radical steps to be taken in “solving the Jewish Question.”

INFLUENCE OF GERMANY

Pressured by domestic radical nationalists and fascists, Hungary fell increasingly under the influence of Germany as the Nazi regime consolidated itself in the 1930s. When Germany began to redraw national boundaries in Europe, Hungary was able to regain territory (with German and Italian help). This territory included southern Slovakia from Czechoslovakia (1938), Subcarpathian Rus from dismembered Czechoslovakia (1939), northern Transylvania from Romania (1940), and the Backa region from dismembered Yugoslavia (1941). In November 1940, Hungary joined the Axis alliance. Hungarian troops participated alongside German troops in the invasion of Yugoslavia (April 1941) and the Soviet Union (June 1941).

JEWISH POPULATION

According to a 1941 census, Hungary, including the recently annexed territories, had a Jewish population of 825,000, less than 6 percent of the total population. This figure included 100,000 converts to Christianity who, under Hungarian race laws passed between 1938 and 1941, were classified as Jews. The Hungarian racial laws were modeled on Germany’s Nuremberg Laws. They reversed the equal citizenship status granted to Jews in Hungary in 1867. Among other provisions, the laws defined “Jews” in so-called racial terms, forbade intermarriage between Jews and non-Jews, and excluded Jews from full participation in various professions. The laws also barred employment of Jews in the civil service and restricted their opportunities in economic life.

FORCED-LABOR SERVICE

In 1939, the Hungarian government, having forbidden Jews to serve in the armed forces, established a forced-labor service for young men of arms-bearing age. By 1940, the obligation to perform forced labor was extended to all able-bodied male Jews. After Hungary entered the war, the forced laborers, organized in labor battalions under the command of Hungarian military officers, were deployed on war-related construction work, often under brutal conditions. Subjected to extreme cold, without adequate shelter, food, or medical care, at least 27,000 Hungarian Jewish forced laborers died before the German occupation of Hungary in March 1944.

BEFORE GERMAN OCCUPATION

In the summer of 1941, Hungarian authorities deported some 20,000 Jews, most of whom resided in Subcarpathian Rus and none of whom had been able to obtain Hungarian citizenship. These Jews were deported to Kamenets-Podolski in the German-occupied Ukraine, where they were shot by Nazi Einsatzgruppe (mobile killing unit) detachments. In January 1942, Hungarian military units murdered 3,000 Jews and Serbs in Novi Sad, the major city in Hungarian-annexed Yugoslavia. When the German government began to pressure the Hungarians in 1942 to deliver Jews who were Hungarian citizens into German custody, however, Horthy’s prime minister, Miklos Kallay, refused to deport the Hungarian Jews, despite significant pressure from the domestic radical right. Ironically, most Hungarian Jews were thus spared deportation prior to the German occupation in 1944, as the Nazis did not directly control the internal activities of their allies.

Copyright © United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC

ENCYCLOPEDIA LAST UPDATED: JUNE 20, 2014

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005457

HUNGARY AFTER THE GERMAN OCCUPATION

GERMAN OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY

After the German defeat at Stalingrad on the eastern front in 1942-1943, a battle in which Hungarian units suffered tremendous losses, Admiral Miklos Horthy and Prime Minister Miklos Kallay recognized that Germany would likely lose the war.

With Horthy’s tacit approval, Kallay sought to negotiate a separate armistice for Hungary with the western Allies. In order to forestall these efforts, German forces occupied Hungary on March 19, 1944. Horthy was permitted to remain Regent, but Kallay was dismissed and the Germans installed General Dome Sztojay, who had previously served as Hungarian minister to Berlin and was fanatically pro-German, as prime minister. Sztojay committed Hungary to continuing the war effort and cooperated with the Germans in their efforts to deport the Hungarian Jews.

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A deserted street in the area of the Sighet Marmatiei ghetto. This photograph was taken after the deportation of the ghetto population. Sighet Marmatiei, Hungary, May 1944.

— USHMM, courtesy of Albert Rosenthal

GHETTOIZATION OF HUNGARIAN JEWS

In April 1944, Hungarian authorities ordered Hungarian Jews living outside Budapest (roughly 500,000) to concentrate in certain cities, usually regional government seats. Hungarian gendarmes were sent into the rural regions to round up the Jews and dispatch them to the cities. The urban areas in which the Jews were forced to concentrate were enclosed and referred to as ghettos. Sometimes the ghettos encompassed the area of a former Jewish neighborhood. In other cases the ghetto was merely a single building, such as a factory.

In some Hungarian cities, Jews were compelled to live outdoors, without shelter or sanitary facilities. Food and water supplies were dangerously inadequate; medical care was virtually non-existent. Hungarian authorities forbade the Jews from leaving the ghettos and police guarded the perimeters of the enclosures. Individual gendarmes often tortured Jews and extorted personal valuables from them. None of these ghettos existed for more than a few weeks and many were liquidated within days.

DEPORTATION OF HUNGARIAN JEWS

In mid-May 1944, the Hungarian authorities, in coordination with the German Security Police, began to systematically deport the Hungarian Jews. SS Colonel Adolf Eichmann was chief of the team of “deportation experts” that worked with the Hungarian authorities. The Hungarian police carried out the roundups and forced the Jews onto the deportation trains.

In less than two months, nearly 440,000 Jews were deported from Hungary in more than 145 trains. Most were deported to Auschwitz, but thousands were also sent to the border with Austria to be deployed at digging fortification trenches. By the end of July 1944, the only Jewish community left in Hungary was that of Budapest, the capital.

SZALASI REGIME

In light of the worsening military situation and facing threats (from Allied leaders) of war crimes trials, Horthy ordered a halt to the deportations on July 7, 1944. In August, he dismissed the Sztojay government and resumed efforts to reach an armistice, this time with the Soviet Union whose army was on Hungary’s borders. Horthy had begun final negotiations with Soviet army commanders by mid-October, when the Germans sponsored a coup d’etat. They arrested Horthy and installed a new Hungarian government under Ferenc Szalasi, the leader of the fascist and radically antisemitic Arrow Cross party.

During the Szalasi regime, Arrow Cross gangs perpetrated a reign of arbitrary terror against the Jews of Budapest. Hundreds of Jews, both men and women, were violently murdered. Many others died from the brutal conditions of forced labor to which the Arrow Cross subjected them.

In November 1944, the Arrow Cross regime ordered the remaining Jews of Budapest into a ghetto which, covering an area of 0.1 square miles, became temporary residence to nearly 70,000 people. Several thousand Budapest Jews were also marched on foot under Hungarian guard to the Austrian border during November and December 1944. Many who were too weak to continue marching in the bitter cold were shot along the way.

ARMISTICE AND LIBERATION

In January 1945, with Soviet forces already in the Pest section of Budapest, Hungary signed an armistice. Soviet forces liberated the Buda section of the city on February 13, 1945. Soviet troops drove the last German units and their Arrow Cross collaborators out of western Hungary in early April 1945.

Of approximately 825,000 Jews living in Hungary in 1941, about 63,000 died or were killed prior to the German occupation of March 1944. Under German occupation, just over 500,000 died from maltreatment or were murdered. Some 255,000 Jews, less than one-third of those who had resided within enlarged Hungary in March 1944, survived the Holocaust. About 190,000 of these were residents of Hungary in its 1920 borders.

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Portrait of members of a Hungarian Jewish family. They were deported to and killed in Auschwitz soon after this photo was taken. Kapuvar, Hungary, June 8, 1944.

— US Holocaust Memorial Museum

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A transport of Hungarian Jews lines up for selection at Auschwitz. Poland, May 1944.

— Yad Vashem Photo Archives

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Hungarian Jews on their way to the gas chambers. Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland, May 1944.

— Yad Vashem Photo Archives

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Arrow Cross Party members execute Jews along the banks of the Danube River. Budapest, Hungary, 1944.

— National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Md.

Copyright © United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC

ENCYCLOPEDIA LAST UPDATED: JUNE 20, 2014

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005458

Photographs Documenting the Holocaust in Hungary

Photographs Documenting the Holocaust in Hungary

by László Karsai Ph.D.


Introduction, by Harry W. Mazal OBE:

When the Soviet Army captured Budapest on January 17-18, 1945, it was too late to save the lives of 564,500 Jews who had been sent to the various death-camps run by the Nazis. The Budapest SS headquarters, however, was over-run by the Soviets before the Nazis were able to destroy a huge number of papers which documented their efforts to annihilate the Hungarian Jews. These documents, together with many of the photographs that are part of this essay, were bundled up by the Soviets and stored in the basement of the Hungarian Ministry of the Interior where they remained unseen for over forty years. When Hungary regained its independence from the Soviet block, the new Minister of the Interior discovered these documents and gave them to the Jewish Museum and Archives of Hungary where Dr. Karsai is presently cataloging and scanning them. We are pleased that the Museum has selected The Holocaust History Project as the site in the United States where eventually all of the tens of thousands of documents may be viewed. The small sampling shown below bears witness to those dreadful years.


Many people know – although many of them very much want to forget, and many more want to make others forget – that the Nazis and their European accomplices murdered six million Jews by employing various methods, such as hunger, beating, hanging, shooting, gassing, etc. during the Second World War. Nearly one tenth of the victims were Hungarian Jews, which means approximately 550,000 people. This estimate is based on a sound research of archival documents.

Even the definition is strange: a “Hungarian Jew.” A major element constituting the tragedy of the Jews in Hungary was that those people who after their Emancipation (1867) became unreservedly Hungarians regarding their language, customs, clothing, and most importantly, their feelings, were excluded from the community of Hungarian citizens. Horthy Miklós’s regime (1920-1944) carried out their gradual exclusion by a series of Jewish Laws passed after 1938. Those very same Jews, about whom Theodor Herzl stated with resignation at the turn of the century that they became a “dry bough” of Zionism, suddenly realized that their homeland for which they had fought with such devotion during the First World War (more than 10,000 Jews died and thousands upon thousands were wounded and disabled) regarded them as alien enemies. This was the case in spite of the fact that the overwhelming majority of the Hungarian Jewry, notwithstanding the orthodoxim, regarded themselves as Hungarians following the “faith of Moses.”

The reasons why the Hungarian Parliament agreed to pass the severely unlawful First Jewish Law is a subject of a historical debate. According to the traditional opinion it was meant to be a token of “good” intentions towards Hitler’s Reich, the neighbor of which Hungary became after the Anschluss (the Nazi Third Reich annexed Austria in March 1938). It is also possible that the right-wing conservative politicians aimed to take the wind out of the sails of the extreme right. It may well be that the example of the fascist Italy also exercised a considerable influence, since Mussolini in the same year passed anti-Semitic laws and decrees, with which he surprised even the members of his own party.

Three anti-Semitic laws completed the exclusion of the Hungarian Jews between 1938 and 1941. The first two laws made their economic situation more and more difficult; the Third Jewish Law, which was passed in 1941, however, was a real, Nuremberg-type, racial law introducing “race-protective” orders.

In July and August of 1941 nearly 16,000 Jews regarded as aliens or whose citizenship was stated to be unresolved, were deported to territories under German rule in Galicia where the Germans massacred them in the vicinity of Kamenec-Podolskij. This was the first “five-digit massacre” during the process of the Holocaust of the European Jewry. We do not have photos documenting this massacre. However, we have pictures about the second massacre which involved Hungarian Jews. In January 1942 in the Southern region (Délvidék, which was reclaimed from Yugoslavia) during an action taken against Serb partisans Hungarian gendarmeries murdered nearly 3,500 people. There were about 800 Jews among them. The gendarmeries shot their victims and threw their bodies into holes blown in the ice of the frozen-over Danube. Evidently, in order to frighten the civilians, they also hanged people in the public squares as we can see in the pictures.

Eichmann and his Sonderkommando of 200 men deported the Jews of the provinces to Auschwitz with the active help of the Hungarian clerks, policemen, solders and gendarmeries in the spring and early summer of 1944. The Jewry of the provinces, 437,000 people, made up more than fifty percent of the entire Hungarian Jewry. We have extremely few photos documenting this horrible “record achievement,” since Eichmann and his “experts” were not “able” to deport so many Jews in such a short period from any other European country (between May 15 and June 6 of 1944).

According to archival documents, sporadic newspaper sources, and testimonies of survivors, the majority of the gentiles did not even try to help the persecuted people. There were only a few people who participated actively in the persecution besides the officials and functionaries. Their estimated number is greater, however, than the number of those people who tried to help actively. The photos documenting the deportation show that it takes only a few gendarmeries to march the obedient Jews to the railway station, to the cattle cars. We know from archival documents that after the deportation, the citizens began the looting of the deserted ghettos. In some places they acted defying the martial law; and in other places they had official permission. Obviously, the looters of Kôszeg belonged to the second category, since they happily allowed the taking of pictures. Both the looters and the loot indicate, that in this case, poor people were taking the belongings of other poor people.

Miklós Horthy put an end to the deportation of the Jews on the 6th of July, 1944. The reasons are still not entirely clear. It is possible that his decision was motivated by the landing of the allied forces on the shores of Normandy, or the offensive of the Red Army, or he was afraid that the capital would have been destroyed by a carpet bombing if the Jews of Pest had had been deported. Eichmann had a fit, but without Hungarian help he was not able to continue shipping “raw material” to the death factory of Auschwitz.

Ferenc Szálasi, the leader of the Arrow-Cross Party and the Hungarist Movement came to power with the help of the Germans, after Miklós Horthy, the governor of Hungary, announced that he appealed for cease-fire. The members of his government, when their picture was taken, broke a tradition: they did not wear their Hungarian gala-dress. They put on simple civilian clothes. Maybe they had a premonition concerning their fate: the majority of them would be sentenced to death by the court of the Hungarian People within a period of less than one and a half years.

Nearly 200,000 Jews were terrified in Budapest by the coming into power of Szálasi’s Arrow-Cross men. The troops of the Red Army were not able to liberate the ghetto of Pest until the 18th of January, 1945. Up to then, hundreds of defenseless Jews were murdered by Arrow-Cross men every day as the photos show. Many Jews were tortured horribly before their death, others were simply shot and thrown into the Danube which was filled with drift-ice. They handed over nearly 70,000 Jews to the Germans for forced labor. They worked on the fortification system in the Sub-Alps in order to “protect” Vienna.

In the spring of 1945 Budapest was reduced to ruins as we can see in the photographs. Because of the meaningless war fought, on the Nazis’ side nearly one million lives were lost. From 825,000 Hungarian Jews 550,000 died, and some of the returning survivors emigrated within the next few years. Thus, in the place where one of the most flourishing Jewish communities of Middle-Eastern Europe once existed, now only approximately 5,000-70,000 Jews exist.

 

 

Intellectuals in the internment camp.
Intellectuals in the internment camp. Written on the picture: Some of the last Jewish members of the editorial staff of the “Pesti Hírlap,” who were working until the great change, and then they landed in the factory internment camp. From left to right: Imre Gyôri, the former editor of the paper, Gyula Vidor former political columnist, Béla Szabó, János Fleiner Fóti, the former “dreaded” critic, Lajos Réti, the younger brother of Katalin Karádi’s secretary, László Gál, the son of the actor Gyula Gál, and political contributor Ferenc Kemény.
Interned lawyers, actors and journalists
Interned lawyers, actors and journalists
Jewish intellectuals in the internment camp.
Jewish intellectuals in the internment camp.
Members of the editorial team of the newspaper
Members of the editorial team of the newspaper “Esti Kurir” in the internment camp (István Kardos was murdered).
Internment camp.
Internment camp. Written on the picture: “Some of the last Jewish ‘Mochikans’ of the Pester Lloyd in the factory internment camp.” From left to right: Ernô Geiringer, György Kecskeméti, István Keller, Péter Sugár, Gyula Morgernstern, Jewish former journalists.
Internment camp.
Internment camp. Written on the picture: “The last Jewish members of the editorial staff of the ‘Ujság’ in the factory internment camp.” From left to right: Zoltán Stób, Sándor Jemnitz, Ernô Halász, Géza Kônig, Endre György, Jenô Nádor.
Internment camp.
Internment camp. “The illustrious quartet (four-in-hand).” [written on the picture] The first man from the left is Mr. Rozsnyai the composer. He does not wear the yellow star because his wife is Christian. It did not help, however: he and his wife were murdered.
Ernô Ligeti was murdered.
Ernô Ligeti was murdered. Written on the picture: “Ernô Ligeti Lichtenstein, the former Jewish journalist and novelist in the factory internment camp.”
An article in the
An article in the “Harc” about the Jews in the internment camp. (Title: “Together the Entire Illustrious Company!”)
Leaders of banks and factories in the internment camp.
Leaders of banks and factories in the internment camp. Written on the picture: “These ‘big Jews’ also live in the internment camp: 1. Baron Samu Madarassy-Beck, the retired president of Leszámítoló Bank. 2. Emil Wolf, the former manager of the Chinoin chemical factory, who do not wear the yellow star even in the internment camp for Jews, because his wife is Christian. 3. Samu Weiner, the former ‘leader’ of the Jewish mill industry. 4. Károly Somogyi, the former co-owner of the Haasz and Somogyi hardware company.”
From the newspaper
From the newspaper “Harc.” The text written on the picture is abusive and sarcastic in the vein of anti-Semitic writing.
Internment camp.
Internment camp. Written on the picture: “Jewish women lying down in the factory internment camp.”
Distribution of dinner in the internment camp.
Distribution of dinner in the internment camp.
Internment camp.
Internment camp. A group in the internment camp. In the front stands Zoli, the famous dwarf clown of Budapest.
Internment camp.
Internment camp.
Dezsô Kellér, the famous master of ceremonies in forced labor.
Dezsô Kellér, the famous master of ceremonies in forced labor. None of the listeners seen in this picture survived (Nyírség, 1943).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: construction work (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: construction work (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the skeleton staff (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the skeleton staff (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: cooks: J.
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: cooks: J. Szitnyai (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: on the way to Russia (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: on the way to Russia (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the entire forced labor battalion (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the entire forced labor battalion (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: construction work (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: construction work (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: on the way to Russia (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: on the way to Russia (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: one of the officers (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: one of the officers (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the same officer (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the same officer (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: shoemakers (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: shoemakers (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: kitchen (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: kitchen (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: camp fire (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: camp fire (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: part of the camp (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: part of the camp (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: staff of officers (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: staff of officers (Riptinyec, 1940).
Ohrolruf camp.
Ohrolruf camp.
The center of the Arrow Cross Party at Andrássy street No.
The center of the Arrow Cross Party at Andrássy street No. 60: “the House of Fidelity.”
The center of the Arrow Cross Party under Andrássy street No.
The center of the Arrow Cross Party under Andrássy street No. 60: “the House of Fidelity.” (Partial enlargement of previous.)
The Arrow Cross Government (Ferenc Szálasi was the Prime Minister).
The Arrow Cross Government (Ferenc Szálasi was the Prime Minister).
The Szálasi Government.
The Szálasi Government.
Ferenc Szálasi enters the Castle of Buda.
Ferenc Szálasi enters the Castle of Buda.
Strolling people.
Strolling people.
The gate of a house at Kossuth Lajos Square no.
The gate of a house at Kossuth Lajos Square no. 18 is marked by a yellow star.
A Jewish woman clearing away rubble.
A Jewish woman clearing away rubble.
Moving into a house marked by a yellow star.
Moving into a house marked by a yellow star.
Jews being marched on the József ring (József körút) to the ghetto of Pest.
Jews being marched on the József ring (József körút) to the ghetto of Pest.
Handcuffing in Poland.
Handcuffing in Poland.
Many Jews who wanted to obtain a Schutzpass are queuing in front of the so called
Many Jews who wanted to obtain a Schutzpass are queuing in front of the so called “Glass House” (Budapest, Vadász street no. 29.) which was protected by the Swiss embassy.
School of Jewish children, refugees from Poland in Vác (1942-1943).
School of Jewish children, refugees from Poland in Vác (1942-1943).
The synagogue of Tarnopol which was set on fire by the Nazis.
The synagogue of Tarnopol which was set on fire by the Nazis.
Before being taken away.
Before being taken away.
Yellow star.
Yellow star.
A rabbi is forced to wash a car (Novy Sad, 1942).
A rabbi is forced to wash a car (Novy Sad, 1942).
Identity check by Arrow Cross men (still from film, 1955)
Identity check by Arrow Cross men. This is not a contemporaneous photo, but a still from the filmBudapest Spring (1955).
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses in Budapest.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses in Budapest.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses in Budapest.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses in Budapest.
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men in Budapest.
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men in Budapest.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men in Budapest.
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men in Budapest.
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses in Budapest.
The skull of a victim of Arrow Cross men.
The skull of a victim of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men in the court of the Synagogue of Dohány street.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men in the court of the Synagogue of Dohány street.
Corpses in a concentration camp.
Corpses in a concentration camp.
Corpses in a concentration camp.
Corpses in a concentration camp.
The death of a Jewish forced laborer.
The death of a Jewish forced laborer.
Novy Sad, a street after shooting committed by the gendarmerie.
Novy Sad, a street after shooting committed by the gendarmerie.
Hungarian gendarmes are shooting Jews on the streets in Novy Sad.
Hungarian gendarmes are shooting Jews on the streets in Novy Sad.
Executions in Novy Sad in 1942.
Executions in Novy Sad in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanging (Novy Sad, 1942)
Hanging (Novy Sad, 1942)
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Victims of the ghetto (Budapest, 19 January 1945).
Victims of the ghetto (Budapest, 19 January 1945).
A victim of the Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944).
A victim of the Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944).
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944)
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944)
A cart full of corpses (Budapest, 1945)
A cart full of corpses (Budapest, 1945)
Wagon full of corpses (Budapest, 1945)
Wagon full of corpses (Budapest, 1945)
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944-1945)
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944-1945)
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944-1945)
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944-1945)
Murdered Jewish forced laborers at the end of 1944 in the Beregi forest at Füzesabony.
Murdered Jewish forced laborers at the end of 1944 in the Beregi forest at Füzesabony.
Exhumation of the bodies of Jewish forced laborers at Cservenka (November 5, 1957)
Exhumation of the bodies of Jewish forced laborers at Cservenka (November 5, 1957)
A group of objects found during the exhumation at Cservenka (November 5, 1957).
A group of objects found during the exhumation at Cservenka (November 5, 1957).
The identification of the corpse of 22 year old Magda Friedmann in Budapest.
The identification of the corpse of 22 year old Magda Friedmann in Budapest.
The grave-stone of Hanna Szenes in Budapest.
The grave-stone of Hanna Szenes in Budapest.
Patients and doctors murdered in the Jewish hospital in Maros street (Budapest, 1945).
Patients and doctors murdered in the Jewish hospital in Maros street (Budapest, 1945).
Corpse of a murdered Jew.
Corpse of a murdered Jew.
Funeral procession held for exhumed bodies of Jewish forced laborers (Budapest).
Funeral procession held for exhumed bodies of Jewish forced laborers (Budapest).
Exhumation from the depth of 60 cm in the forest of Kerecsend.
Exhumation from the depth of 60 cm in the forest of Kerecsend.
Exhumation in the forest of Kerecsend
Exhumation in the forest of Kerecsend
A corpse in a coffin in the forest of Kerecsend.
A corpse in a coffin in the forest of Kerecsend.
Re-examination: Dr. Németh
Re-examination: Dr. Németh and his colleague (in the forest of Kerecsend).
Exhumed corpse in the forest of Kerecsend.
Exhumed corpse in the forest of Kerecsend.
Corpses of a mother and her daughter in the forest of Kerecsend.
Corpses of a mother and her daughter in the forest of Kerecsend.
Taking 20 corpses to the cemetery of Eger from the forest of Kerecsend.
Taking 20 corpses to the cemetery of Eger from the forest of Kerecsend.
Coffins on the hill of the cemetery after the exhumation (Kerecsend).
Coffins on the hill of the cemetery after the exhumation (Kerecsend).
12 corpses in coffins (Kerecsend).
12 corpses in coffins (Kerecsend).
The lowering of the coffins to the grave (Eger).
The lowering of the coffins to the grave (Eger).
The funeral of the 26 martyrs in Eger.
The funeral of the 26 martyrs in Eger. They were murdered in the forest of Kerecsend. Mr. Székely the President of the Jewish Community of Eger delivers a speech.
The funeral of the 26 martyrs in Eger.
The funeral of the 26 martyrs in Eger. They were murdered in the forest of Kerecsend.
Tank, refugees
Tank, refugees
Street in the time of war.
Street in the time of war.
Taking photos of the victims in the ghetto (Budapest, 19.
Taking photos of the victims in the ghetto (Budapest, 19. January 1945).
Prisoners of war
Prisoners of war
Portrait of a victim of skin transplantation.
Portrait of a victim of skin transplantation.
Shoe sole made of a desecrated Torah.
Shoe sole made of a desecrated Torah.
Drum made from a desecrated Torah.
Drum made from a desecrated Torah.
The emptying of apartments of Jews in Sopron (1944).
The emptying of apartments of Jews in Sopron (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Jews marching towards the railway station in Kôszeg (1944).
Jews marching towards the railway station in Kôszeg (1944).
March of deportees to the railway station in Kôszeg (1944).
March of deportees to the railway station in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
A hiding Jew.
A hiding Jew.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
A ravaged home.
A ravaged home.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
Deportation: on the way to the railway station (Kôszeg, 1944).
Deportation: on the way to the railway station (Kôszeg, 1944).
Deportation (Balatonfüred, 1944).
Deportation (Balatonfüred, 1944).
Deportation (Balatonfüred, 1944).
Deportation (Balatonfüred, 1944).
Arrival at the concentration camp.
Arrival at the concentration camp.
Part of the camp.
Part of the camp.
Goldmark Hall (Budapest, 1945).
Goldmark Hall (Budapest, 1945).
Picture taken in Germany [?]
Picture taken in Germany [?]
The humiliating march of those who
The humiliating march of those who “dishonored the German race”.
Placard against Jewish lawyers and doctors.
Placard against Jewish lawyers and doctors.
A deportee (Auschwitz).
A deportee (Auschwitz).
Arrival at Auschwitz (1944).
Arrival at Auschwitz (1944).
A group of people arriving at Auschwitz (1944).
A group of people arriving at Auschwitz (1944).
Medical experiment.
Medical experiment.
A small child with tattooed arm.
A small child with tattooed arm.
People lined up to celebrate in a camp after the Second World War.
People lined up to celebrate in a camp after the Second World War.
Wreaths for the memory of the martyrs.
Wreaths for the memory of the martyrs.
Shooting in the back of the neck.
Shooting in the back of the neck.
SS execution.
SS execution.
Victim in a concentration camp.
Victim in a concentration camp.
Heap of corpses.
Heap of corpses.
A dead person beside the rails.
A dead person beside the rails.
Corpses in Dachau.
Corpses in Dachau.
Interior of a barrack (Dachau).
Interior of a barrack (Dachau).
Heap of corpses in Dachau.
Heap of corpses in Dachau.
Corpses in Dachau.
Corpses in Dachau.
Corpses in Dachau.
Corpses in Dachau.
Victims in Dachau.
Victims in Dachau.
Victims in Dachau.
Victims in Dachau.

Hungary admits Holocaust role

Hungary admits Holocaust role

January 27, 2014

Marton Dunai

Holocaust survivor and historian Randolph Braham.

Holocaust survivor and historian Randolph Braham. Photo: AP

Budapest: Hungarians collaborated with Nazis in sending nearly half a million Jews to their deaths, Hungary’s President said, in a rare public acknowledgement of a wartime past that Jewish groups say is often glossed over.

Earlier on Sunday, an American historian said he was returning an award he received from the previous head of state in protest at what he called the government’s attempt to erase Hungary’s role in the Holocaust.

In a statement prepared for Monday’s Holocaust Memorial Day, President Janos Ader said that if the war had gone according to the plans of Adolf Hitler and his Hungarian fascist allies, Jews would have been exterminated completely from Hungary.

The arrival and processing of a transport of Jewish people at Auschwitz-Birkenau in May 1944.

The arrival and processing of a transport of Jewish people at Auschwitz-Birkenau in May 1944. Photo: AP/Yad Vashem Photo Archives

“Auschwitz may be hundreds of kilometres from Hungary but it is part of Hungarian history,” Mr Ader wrote. “This death camp was the scene of the inhumane suffering, humiliation and death of nearly half a million of our compatriots.”

Jewish groups have criticised the centre-right government of Prime Minister Viktor Orban for what they see as its lacklustre attempt to fight anti-Semitism.

A Jewish group has threatened to boycott Holocaust commemorations over plans to erect a monument to the German occupation in 1944. It said that pushed the blame for the genocide solely onto Germans, obscuring the role of Hungarians.

A Hungarian woman at the wall of victims at the Holocaust Museum in Budapest.

A Hungarian woman at the wall of victims at the Holocaust Museum in Budapest. Photo: AFP

Mr Orban, the favourite to win re-election in April, has said he would do everything to stamp out growing anti-Semitism in a country where a far-right party, Jobbik, again openly uses anti-Semitic rhetoric and last November unveiled a statue of wartime leader Miklos Horthy, an ally of Hitler.

“Seventy years ago, after our nation’s German occupation, the Nazi overlords and the Hungarian authorities that collaborated with them seemed to fulfil the will of Hitler’s Nazi Germany,” Mr Ader wrote. “In barely half a year they mercilessly completed ghettos and deported almost the entire rural Jewry.”

Because the deportations were halted in July 1944, tens of thousands of Jews were spared the gas chamber, mostly in Budapest, and the central European capital today is home to the largest indigenous Jewish community in Europe.

Before Mr Ader’s statement was released, veteran Romanian-born historian Randolph Braham, who settled in the United States after World War II, said he was returning Hungary’s Order of Merit which he received in 2011 for his work, including on the Hungarian Holocaust.

“I have followed the latest developments in Hungary with great concern,” Mr Braham wrote in an open letter posted on several news websites. “I was shocked, as were surely others, at the past few years’ campaign to whitewash history.”

“They wish … to excuse Hungary from the responsibility for the active role it played in annihilating nearly 600,000 of its Jewish citizens.”

In Hungary the Holocaust began years before it came under direct German occupation in 1944. Under Horthy, there were anti-Jewish pogroms, several reported instances of mass killings and the deportation of thousands of Jews to labour camps.

Occupying German forces then received willing help from Hungarian authorities in deporting 437,000 Jews within a few weeks in 1944.

“[The] national monument to the German occupation … is a cowardly attempt to deflect attention from the role the Horthy regime played in the annihilation of Jews,” Mr Braham wrote. “It blurs the Holocaust with what they say is the suffering of Hungarians during the German occupation … which was met with general applause rather than resistance, as proven by historical facts.”

Reuters

The Hungarian Holocaust: 70 Years Later

 CEU hosted “The Hungarian Holocaust: Seventy Years Later” conference on April 6, bringing together the top scholars in the field to share their research on the leadup to the atrocity, the responsible actors, the effects of the destruction, and the ways in which the Hungarian Holocaust is remembered and commemorated.

CEU President and Rector John Shattuck opened the event, calling it a “momentous, solemn and far-reaching occasion for those who have the capacity to look deep into history and to understand it.” The conference is held every 10 years in conjunction with a related conference in the U.S. Shattuck expressed pride in CEU as the conference’s sole sponsor and for the dual goals of the University and the conference in engaging in the pursuit of truth and desire for an honest engagement with history. He underscored the enormous importance of the conference proceedings, “so that record of what actually happened cannot be twisted and shaded against the truth that we all know.”

Professor Andras Kovacs, who teaches both in CEU’s Jewish Studies and Nationalism Programs, preceded the panels with a story of a very good friend whose personal history Kovacs never knew until he heard it from another source. The friend was born after the war to a Hungarian woman whose husband had been sent to a labor camp before she was snatched from her home by the Arrow Cross, forcing her to leave her 18-month-old son behind. Although at first, neighbors tried to care for the child, he eventually died of starvation before his mother returned to Hungary. Kovacs’s friend was the younger brother of the child who died, but he had never shared the story. The secrecy of such stories was the norm, not only just after the war, but throughout the communist regime, when it was essentially illegal to discuss the Holocaust, despite the Soviet portrayal of the Germans were relentless tyrants.

Renowned author and Holocaust scholar Randolph Braham gave the keynote address via taped video message from the U.S. “This conference is being held at a significant juncture in the history of Hungary and Hungarian Jewry, on the 70th anniversary of the Holocaust,” said Braham, a distinguished professor emeritus of political science at the City College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. “The destruction of Hungarian Jewry, on the eve of Allied victory, represents one of the most controversial chapters in the history of the ‘Final Solution’ in Europe.”

He went on to note that most of the 565,000 Hungarian victims considered themselves loyal Magyars (Hungarians) of the Jewish faith, citizens of a country that has yet to acknowledge a role in the Holocaust, let alone apologize.

“It is this failure to honestly and courageously confront the past that largely contributed to the increasingly virulent assault on the historical memory of the Holocaust,” Braham said. “Following the systemic change of 1989, the leaders of the successive democratically-elected governments, while aware of the reality of the Holocaust, have, with a few exceptions, consistently pursued policies that one, aim to deflect attention from the Holocaust by focusing on the positive experiences of the Jews in their emancipation in 1867 and on the rescue activities of the relatively few Christian Hungarians during the German occupation, including [Regent Miklos] Horthy’s rescue: the halting of deportations in early July 1944. These policies also strove to bring about the rehabilitation of the Horthy era and the revitalization of the national Christian principles that had guided it. Finally, these policies were designed to absolve Hungary of any guilt for the Holocaust by placing ultimate and exclusive responsibility onto the Germans.”

In the first panel, scholars addressed “The Road to the Holocaust,” dissecting official policy of the Hungarian government, including the 1920 “numerus clausus” law, the first to place strict quotas on the number of Jews who could attend university.

CEU Professor Maria Kovacs, director of the Nationalism Studies Program who published a groundbreaking book on numerus clausus in 2012, noted that historians can neither confirm nor deny a straight line between the anti-Semitism of the 1920s and that of the 1940s. Kovacs is, instead, very interested in whether or not – in the history of Horthy regime – a serious attempt was made to reconsider the 1920 Jewish quota or to try to put an end to discrimination.

“It is important because, 18 years later, the 1920 legislation served as a prototype legislation for the new anti-Jewish law,” she said. “Proponents of the 1920 university quota were very explicit in that they intended to expand it to all income-earning occupations.”

Interestingly, Kovacs contrasted this with U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s successful efforts to curb discrimination during the same era. In Hungary, Prime Minister Istvan Bethlen’s 1928 reform of numerus clausus (which eased the quotas somewhat) was meant to satisfy foreign demands but not to genuinely eliminate discrimination, Kovacs said. “It was a phony paper reform. Lower-level government decrees were then implemented [to continue discrimination].”

Krisztian Ungvary, a research fellow at the Institute for the History of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, discussed decision-making regarding the deportations of Hungarian Jews.
He believes that the deportations were not part of a master plan, but a

series of political decisions made by Hungarian authorities. “When Germans were sent here, it wasn’t even clear that they had to collect Jews and deport them,” Ungvary said. “Everything that happened here did so in strong cooperation with Hungarian authorities. There was no German office that would’ve taken over Hungarian administrative tasks, there were liaisons.” In fact, Ungvary noted, according to phone books, the number of those Hungarians who worked with Nazi leader Adolph Eichmann on deportation numbered 60 and the whole of the Nazi staff in Hungary was no more than 200.

Regarding the effects on Jewish society after the war, CEU Professor Emeritus of History Viktor Karady reviewed his data on how many doctors had disappeared as a result of the Holocaust. Because Jews in the countryside were targeted first, many doctors moved to Budapest. “The losses of the Jewish groups is much bigger than Christian groups,” Karady said. “It is a very clear distinction which we have to make here between the various rates of losses.” Karady found that the survival rate of female Jewish doctors was higher than male and also noted that social status mattered. He also studied records of those who changed their surnames from Jewish names to Hungarian names to try to avoid persecution.

Karady’s colleague Peter Tibor Nagy, head of the Wesley Research Center for Sociology of Church and Religion, reviewed similar data to determine the different kinds of social capital that could affect survival rates. “How can you hide? What kind of habits are necessary for this?” he asked. The level of education and chosen profession mattered as well as how well Jews were integrated into Christian society.

The final panel dealt with remembrance and commemoration of the Holocaust in Hungary. Gabor Gyani, who teaches at both CEU and Eotvos Lorand University, again pointed out that many commemorations have focused on rescuers and not victims. Under communism, it was essentially forbidden to discuss the Holocaust, so many memories were lost. “Personal biographic narratives have emotional impact,” Gyani said. “The Holocaust experience impacts the national myths. This might have led to self-scrutiny [for Hungary].”

Andrea Peto, CEU associate professor of gender studies, is using the Shoah Foundation’s Visual History Archive to study personal recollections of Hungary’s people’s tribunals that tried members of the Arrow Cross after the war. Peto has reviewed 800 interviews and looked carefully at how the participants talked about the trials, how they are narrating, and how they discuss their participation in the legal process. “These stories are about revenge and satisfaction – they are atypical for Holocaust stories,” Peto said. In her related paper, she argues for understanding the different kind of truths constructed by digital storytelling. “Most damage is done by historians who think they know the truth and are the only ones who can share the truths,” she said. “Looking at memories of the trials warns us how necessary it is to recognize the fragility of memory.”

For full conference program and abstracts, see attachment.

Watch Randolph Braham’s keynote address here.