HUNGARY BEFORE AND AFTER THE GERMAN OCCUPATION

HUNGARY AFTER WORLD WAR I

Hungary had been on the losing side of World War I. After the announcement of punitive peace terms to be imposed on Hungary (which included the loss of 66 percent of Hungary’s prewar territory) were announced in 1919, the postwar coalition government resigned. The reins of power fell to a Socialist-Communist coalition under Communist leader Bela Kun. Kun proceeded to establish a short-lived “Soviet Republic.”

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This poster urges Jews to: “Protect Jewish interests. Do not buy from our enemies. Do not watch their movies.” Hungary, 1937-1938.

— Magyar Nemzeti Muzeum Torteneti Fenykeptar

When the Kun regime collapsed following a Romanian invasion in June 1919, Admiral Miklos Horthy, who had been an officer in the Austro-Hungarian navy, came to power at the head of a conservative-nationalist coalition. This coalition undid most of the democratic reforms promulgated in Hungary immediately after World War I. Assuming the position of regent for the Habsburg king who would never return to Hungary, Horthy presided for the next 24 years over an authoritarian, almost feudal system of aristocratic rule, which nevertheless had a functioning parliament and permitted political opposition. Among those who opposed the conservative-aristocratic oligarchy were radical nationalists and fascists of middle-class and working-class origin. Many of these politicians called for more radical steps to be taken in “solving the Jewish Question.”

INFLUENCE OF GERMANY

Pressured by domestic radical nationalists and fascists, Hungary fell increasingly under the influence of Germany as the Nazi regime consolidated itself in the 1930s. When Germany began to redraw national boundaries in Europe, Hungary was able to regain territory (with German and Italian help). This territory included southern Slovakia from Czechoslovakia (1938), Subcarpathian Rus from dismembered Czechoslovakia (1939), northern Transylvania from Romania (1940), and the Backa region from dismembered Yugoslavia (1941). In November 1940, Hungary joined the Axis alliance. Hungarian troops participated alongside German troops in the invasion of Yugoslavia (April 1941) and the Soviet Union (June 1941).

JEWISH POPULATION

According to a 1941 census, Hungary, including the recently annexed territories, had a Jewish population of 825,000, less than 6 percent of the total population. This figure included 100,000 converts to Christianity who, under Hungarian race laws passed between 1938 and 1941, were classified as Jews. The Hungarian racial laws were modeled on Germany’s Nuremberg Laws. They reversed the equal citizenship status granted to Jews in Hungary in 1867. Among other provisions, the laws defined “Jews” in so-called racial terms, forbade intermarriage between Jews and non-Jews, and excluded Jews from full participation in various professions. The laws also barred employment of Jews in the civil service and restricted their opportunities in economic life.

FORCED-LABOR SERVICE

In 1939, the Hungarian government, having forbidden Jews to serve in the armed forces, established a forced-labor service for young men of arms-bearing age. By 1940, the obligation to perform forced labor was extended to all able-bodied male Jews. After Hungary entered the war, the forced laborers, organized in labor battalions under the command of Hungarian military officers, were deployed on war-related construction work, often under brutal conditions. Subjected to extreme cold, without adequate shelter, food, or medical care, at least 27,000 Hungarian Jewish forced laborers died before the German occupation of Hungary in March 1944.

BEFORE GERMAN OCCUPATION

In the summer of 1941, Hungarian authorities deported some 20,000 Jews, most of whom resided in Subcarpathian Rus and none of whom had been able to obtain Hungarian citizenship. These Jews were deported to Kamenets-Podolski in the German-occupied Ukraine, where they were shot by Nazi Einsatzgruppe (mobile killing unit) detachments. In January 1942, Hungarian military units murdered 3,000 Jews and Serbs in Novi Sad, the major city in Hungarian-annexed Yugoslavia. When the German government began to pressure the Hungarians in 1942 to deliver Jews who were Hungarian citizens into German custody, however, Horthy’s prime minister, Miklos Kallay, refused to deport the Hungarian Jews, despite significant pressure from the domestic radical right. Ironically, most Hungarian Jews were thus spared deportation prior to the German occupation in 1944, as the Nazis did not directly control the internal activities of their allies.

Copyright © United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC

ENCYCLOPEDIA LAST UPDATED: JUNE 20, 2014

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005457

HUNGARY AFTER THE GERMAN OCCUPATION

GERMAN OCCUPATION OF HUNGARY

After the German defeat at Stalingrad on the eastern front in 1942-1943, a battle in which Hungarian units suffered tremendous losses, Admiral Miklos Horthy and Prime Minister Miklos Kallay recognized that Germany would likely lose the war.

With Horthy’s tacit approval, Kallay sought to negotiate a separate armistice for Hungary with the western Allies. In order to forestall these efforts, German forces occupied Hungary on March 19, 1944. Horthy was permitted to remain Regent, but Kallay was dismissed and the Germans installed General Dome Sztojay, who had previously served as Hungarian minister to Berlin and was fanatically pro-German, as prime minister. Sztojay committed Hungary to continuing the war effort and cooperated with the Germans in their efforts to deport the Hungarian Jews.

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A deserted street in the area of the Sighet Marmatiei ghetto. This photograph was taken after the deportation of the ghetto population. Sighet Marmatiei, Hungary, May 1944.

— USHMM, courtesy of Albert Rosenthal

GHETTOIZATION OF HUNGARIAN JEWS

In April 1944, Hungarian authorities ordered Hungarian Jews living outside Budapest (roughly 500,000) to concentrate in certain cities, usually regional government seats. Hungarian gendarmes were sent into the rural regions to round up the Jews and dispatch them to the cities. The urban areas in which the Jews were forced to concentrate were enclosed and referred to as ghettos. Sometimes the ghettos encompassed the area of a former Jewish neighborhood. In other cases the ghetto was merely a single building, such as a factory.

In some Hungarian cities, Jews were compelled to live outdoors, without shelter or sanitary facilities. Food and water supplies were dangerously inadequate; medical care was virtually non-existent. Hungarian authorities forbade the Jews from leaving the ghettos and police guarded the perimeters of the enclosures. Individual gendarmes often tortured Jews and extorted personal valuables from them. None of these ghettos existed for more than a few weeks and many were liquidated within days.

DEPORTATION OF HUNGARIAN JEWS

In mid-May 1944, the Hungarian authorities, in coordination with the German Security Police, began to systematically deport the Hungarian Jews. SS Colonel Adolf Eichmann was chief of the team of “deportation experts” that worked with the Hungarian authorities. The Hungarian police carried out the roundups and forced the Jews onto the deportation trains.

In less than two months, nearly 440,000 Jews were deported from Hungary in more than 145 trains. Most were deported to Auschwitz, but thousands were also sent to the border with Austria to be deployed at digging fortification trenches. By the end of July 1944, the only Jewish community left in Hungary was that of Budapest, the capital.

SZALASI REGIME

In light of the worsening military situation and facing threats (from Allied leaders) of war crimes trials, Horthy ordered a halt to the deportations on July 7, 1944. In August, he dismissed the Sztojay government and resumed efforts to reach an armistice, this time with the Soviet Union whose army was on Hungary’s borders. Horthy had begun final negotiations with Soviet army commanders by mid-October, when the Germans sponsored a coup d’etat. They arrested Horthy and installed a new Hungarian government under Ferenc Szalasi, the leader of the fascist and radically antisemitic Arrow Cross party.

During the Szalasi regime, Arrow Cross gangs perpetrated a reign of arbitrary terror against the Jews of Budapest. Hundreds of Jews, both men and women, were violently murdered. Many others died from the brutal conditions of forced labor to which the Arrow Cross subjected them.

In November 1944, the Arrow Cross regime ordered the remaining Jews of Budapest into a ghetto which, covering an area of 0.1 square miles, became temporary residence to nearly 70,000 people. Several thousand Budapest Jews were also marched on foot under Hungarian guard to the Austrian border during November and December 1944. Many who were too weak to continue marching in the bitter cold were shot along the way.

ARMISTICE AND LIBERATION

In January 1945, with Soviet forces already in the Pest section of Budapest, Hungary signed an armistice. Soviet forces liberated the Buda section of the city on February 13, 1945. Soviet troops drove the last German units and their Arrow Cross collaborators out of western Hungary in early April 1945.

Of approximately 825,000 Jews living in Hungary in 1941, about 63,000 died or were killed prior to the German occupation of March 1944. Under German occupation, just over 500,000 died from maltreatment or were murdered. Some 255,000 Jews, less than one-third of those who had resided within enlarged Hungary in March 1944, survived the Holocaust. About 190,000 of these were residents of Hungary in its 1920 borders.

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Portrait of members of a Hungarian Jewish family. They were deported to and killed in Auschwitz soon after this photo was taken. Kapuvar, Hungary, June 8, 1944.

— US Holocaust Memorial Museum

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A transport of Hungarian Jews lines up for selection at Auschwitz. Poland, May 1944.

— Yad Vashem Photo Archives

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Hungarian Jews on their way to the gas chambers. Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland, May 1944.

— Yad Vashem Photo Archives

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Arrow Cross Party members execute Jews along the banks of the Danube River. Budapest, Hungary, 1944.

— National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Md.

Copyright © United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC

ENCYCLOPEDIA LAST UPDATED: JUNE 20, 2014

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005458

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Photographs Documenting the Holocaust in Hungary

Photographs Documenting the Holocaust in Hungary

by László Karsai Ph.D.


Introduction, by Harry W. Mazal OBE:

When the Soviet Army captured Budapest on January 17-18, 1945, it was too late to save the lives of 564,500 Jews who had been sent to the various death-camps run by the Nazis. The Budapest SS headquarters, however, was over-run by the Soviets before the Nazis were able to destroy a huge number of papers which documented their efforts to annihilate the Hungarian Jews. These documents, together with many of the photographs that are part of this essay, were bundled up by the Soviets and stored in the basement of the Hungarian Ministry of the Interior where they remained unseen for over forty years. When Hungary regained its independence from the Soviet block, the new Minister of the Interior discovered these documents and gave them to the Jewish Museum and Archives of Hungary where Dr. Karsai is presently cataloging and scanning them. We are pleased that the Museum has selected The Holocaust History Project as the site in the United States where eventually all of the tens of thousands of documents may be viewed. The small sampling shown below bears witness to those dreadful years.


Many people know – although many of them very much want to forget, and many more want to make others forget – that the Nazis and their European accomplices murdered six million Jews by employing various methods, such as hunger, beating, hanging, shooting, gassing, etc. during the Second World War. Nearly one tenth of the victims were Hungarian Jews, which means approximately 550,000 people. This estimate is based on a sound research of archival documents.

Even the definition is strange: a “Hungarian Jew.” A major element constituting the tragedy of the Jews in Hungary was that those people who after their Emancipation (1867) became unreservedly Hungarians regarding their language, customs, clothing, and most importantly, their feelings, were excluded from the community of Hungarian citizens. Horthy Miklós’s regime (1920-1944) carried out their gradual exclusion by a series of Jewish Laws passed after 1938. Those very same Jews, about whom Theodor Herzl stated with resignation at the turn of the century that they became a “dry bough” of Zionism, suddenly realized that their homeland for which they had fought with such devotion during the First World War (more than 10,000 Jews died and thousands upon thousands were wounded and disabled) regarded them as alien enemies. This was the case in spite of the fact that the overwhelming majority of the Hungarian Jewry, notwithstanding the orthodoxim, regarded themselves as Hungarians following the “faith of Moses.”

The reasons why the Hungarian Parliament agreed to pass the severely unlawful First Jewish Law is a subject of a historical debate. According to the traditional opinion it was meant to be a token of “good” intentions towards Hitler’s Reich, the neighbor of which Hungary became after the Anschluss (the Nazi Third Reich annexed Austria in March 1938). It is also possible that the right-wing conservative politicians aimed to take the wind out of the sails of the extreme right. It may well be that the example of the fascist Italy also exercised a considerable influence, since Mussolini in the same year passed anti-Semitic laws and decrees, with which he surprised even the members of his own party.

Three anti-Semitic laws completed the exclusion of the Hungarian Jews between 1938 and 1941. The first two laws made their economic situation more and more difficult; the Third Jewish Law, which was passed in 1941, however, was a real, Nuremberg-type, racial law introducing “race-protective” orders.

In July and August of 1941 nearly 16,000 Jews regarded as aliens or whose citizenship was stated to be unresolved, were deported to territories under German rule in Galicia where the Germans massacred them in the vicinity of Kamenec-Podolskij. This was the first “five-digit massacre” during the process of the Holocaust of the European Jewry. We do not have photos documenting this massacre. However, we have pictures about the second massacre which involved Hungarian Jews. In January 1942 in the Southern region (Délvidék, which was reclaimed from Yugoslavia) during an action taken against Serb partisans Hungarian gendarmeries murdered nearly 3,500 people. There were about 800 Jews among them. The gendarmeries shot their victims and threw their bodies into holes blown in the ice of the frozen-over Danube. Evidently, in order to frighten the civilians, they also hanged people in the public squares as we can see in the pictures.

Eichmann and his Sonderkommando of 200 men deported the Jews of the provinces to Auschwitz with the active help of the Hungarian clerks, policemen, solders and gendarmeries in the spring and early summer of 1944. The Jewry of the provinces, 437,000 people, made up more than fifty percent of the entire Hungarian Jewry. We have extremely few photos documenting this horrible “record achievement,” since Eichmann and his “experts” were not “able” to deport so many Jews in such a short period from any other European country (between May 15 and June 6 of 1944).

According to archival documents, sporadic newspaper sources, and testimonies of survivors, the majority of the gentiles did not even try to help the persecuted people. There were only a few people who participated actively in the persecution besides the officials and functionaries. Their estimated number is greater, however, than the number of those people who tried to help actively. The photos documenting the deportation show that it takes only a few gendarmeries to march the obedient Jews to the railway station, to the cattle cars. We know from archival documents that after the deportation, the citizens began the looting of the deserted ghettos. In some places they acted defying the martial law; and in other places they had official permission. Obviously, the looters of Kôszeg belonged to the second category, since they happily allowed the taking of pictures. Both the looters and the loot indicate, that in this case, poor people were taking the belongings of other poor people.

Miklós Horthy put an end to the deportation of the Jews on the 6th of July, 1944. The reasons are still not entirely clear. It is possible that his decision was motivated by the landing of the allied forces on the shores of Normandy, or the offensive of the Red Army, or he was afraid that the capital would have been destroyed by a carpet bombing if the Jews of Pest had had been deported. Eichmann had a fit, but without Hungarian help he was not able to continue shipping “raw material” to the death factory of Auschwitz.

Ferenc Szálasi, the leader of the Arrow-Cross Party and the Hungarist Movement came to power with the help of the Germans, after Miklós Horthy, the governor of Hungary, announced that he appealed for cease-fire. The members of his government, when their picture was taken, broke a tradition: they did not wear their Hungarian gala-dress. They put on simple civilian clothes. Maybe they had a premonition concerning their fate: the majority of them would be sentenced to death by the court of the Hungarian People within a period of less than one and a half years.

Nearly 200,000 Jews were terrified in Budapest by the coming into power of Szálasi’s Arrow-Cross men. The troops of the Red Army were not able to liberate the ghetto of Pest until the 18th of January, 1945. Up to then, hundreds of defenseless Jews were murdered by Arrow-Cross men every day as the photos show. Many Jews were tortured horribly before their death, others were simply shot and thrown into the Danube which was filled with drift-ice. They handed over nearly 70,000 Jews to the Germans for forced labor. They worked on the fortification system in the Sub-Alps in order to “protect” Vienna.

In the spring of 1945 Budapest was reduced to ruins as we can see in the photographs. Because of the meaningless war fought, on the Nazis’ side nearly one million lives were lost. From 825,000 Hungarian Jews 550,000 died, and some of the returning survivors emigrated within the next few years. Thus, in the place where one of the most flourishing Jewish communities of Middle-Eastern Europe once existed, now only approximately 5,000-70,000 Jews exist.

 

 

Intellectuals in the internment camp.
Intellectuals in the internment camp. Written on the picture: Some of the last Jewish members of the editorial staff of the “Pesti Hírlap,” who were working until the great change, and then they landed in the factory internment camp. From left to right: Imre Gyôri, the former editor of the paper, Gyula Vidor former political columnist, Béla Szabó, János Fleiner Fóti, the former “dreaded” critic, Lajos Réti, the younger brother of Katalin Karádi’s secretary, László Gál, the son of the actor Gyula Gál, and political contributor Ferenc Kemény.
Interned lawyers, actors and journalists
Interned lawyers, actors and journalists
Jewish intellectuals in the internment camp.
Jewish intellectuals in the internment camp.
Members of the editorial team of the newspaper
Members of the editorial team of the newspaper “Esti Kurir” in the internment camp (István Kardos was murdered).
Internment camp.
Internment camp. Written on the picture: “Some of the last Jewish ‘Mochikans’ of the Pester Lloyd in the factory internment camp.” From left to right: Ernô Geiringer, György Kecskeméti, István Keller, Péter Sugár, Gyula Morgernstern, Jewish former journalists.
Internment camp.
Internment camp. Written on the picture: “The last Jewish members of the editorial staff of the ‘Ujság’ in the factory internment camp.” From left to right: Zoltán Stób, Sándor Jemnitz, Ernô Halász, Géza Kônig, Endre György, Jenô Nádor.
Internment camp.
Internment camp. “The illustrious quartet (four-in-hand).” [written on the picture] The first man from the left is Mr. Rozsnyai the composer. He does not wear the yellow star because his wife is Christian. It did not help, however: he and his wife were murdered.
Ernô Ligeti was murdered.
Ernô Ligeti was murdered. Written on the picture: “Ernô Ligeti Lichtenstein, the former Jewish journalist and novelist in the factory internment camp.”
An article in the
An article in the “Harc” about the Jews in the internment camp. (Title: “Together the Entire Illustrious Company!”)
Leaders of banks and factories in the internment camp.
Leaders of banks and factories in the internment camp. Written on the picture: “These ‘big Jews’ also live in the internment camp: 1. Baron Samu Madarassy-Beck, the retired president of Leszámítoló Bank. 2. Emil Wolf, the former manager of the Chinoin chemical factory, who do not wear the yellow star even in the internment camp for Jews, because his wife is Christian. 3. Samu Weiner, the former ‘leader’ of the Jewish mill industry. 4. Károly Somogyi, the former co-owner of the Haasz and Somogyi hardware company.”
From the newspaper
From the newspaper “Harc.” The text written on the picture is abusive and sarcastic in the vein of anti-Semitic writing.
Internment camp.
Internment camp. Written on the picture: “Jewish women lying down in the factory internment camp.”
Distribution of dinner in the internment camp.
Distribution of dinner in the internment camp.
Internment camp.
Internment camp. A group in the internment camp. In the front stands Zoli, the famous dwarf clown of Budapest.
Internment camp.
Internment camp.
Dezsô Kellér, the famous master of ceremonies in forced labor.
Dezsô Kellér, the famous master of ceremonies in forced labor. None of the listeners seen in this picture survived (Nyírség, 1943).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: construction work (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: construction work (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the skeleton staff (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the skeleton staff (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: cooks: J.
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: cooks: J. Szitnyai (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: on the way to Russia (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: on the way to Russia (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the entire forced labor battalion (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the entire forced labor battalion (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: construction work (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: construction work (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: on the way to Russia (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: on the way to Russia (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: one of the officers (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: one of the officers (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the same officer (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the same officer (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: shoemakers (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: shoemakers (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: kitchen (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: kitchen (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: camp fire (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: camp fire (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: part of the camp (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: part of the camp (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: staff of officers (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: staff of officers (Riptinyec, 1940).
Ohrolruf camp.
Ohrolruf camp.
The center of the Arrow Cross Party at Andrássy street No.
The center of the Arrow Cross Party at Andrássy street No. 60: “the House of Fidelity.”
The center of the Arrow Cross Party under Andrássy street No.
The center of the Arrow Cross Party under Andrássy street No. 60: “the House of Fidelity.” (Partial enlargement of previous.)
The Arrow Cross Government (Ferenc Szálasi was the Prime Minister).
The Arrow Cross Government (Ferenc Szálasi was the Prime Minister).
The Szálasi Government.
The Szálasi Government.
Ferenc Szálasi enters the Castle of Buda.
Ferenc Szálasi enters the Castle of Buda.
Strolling people.
Strolling people.
The gate of a house at Kossuth Lajos Square no.
The gate of a house at Kossuth Lajos Square no. 18 is marked by a yellow star.
A Jewish woman clearing away rubble.
A Jewish woman clearing away rubble.
Moving into a house marked by a yellow star.
Moving into a house marked by a yellow star.
Jews being marched on the József ring (József körút) to the ghetto of Pest.
Jews being marched on the József ring (József körút) to the ghetto of Pest.
Handcuffing in Poland.
Handcuffing in Poland.
Many Jews who wanted to obtain a Schutzpass are queuing in front of the so called
Many Jews who wanted to obtain a Schutzpass are queuing in front of the so called “Glass House” (Budapest, Vadász street no. 29.) which was protected by the Swiss embassy.
School of Jewish children, refugees from Poland in Vác (1942-1943).
School of Jewish children, refugees from Poland in Vác (1942-1943).
The synagogue of Tarnopol which was set on fire by the Nazis.
The synagogue of Tarnopol which was set on fire by the Nazis.
Before being taken away.
Before being taken away.
Yellow star.
Yellow star.
A rabbi is forced to wash a car (Novy Sad, 1942).
A rabbi is forced to wash a car (Novy Sad, 1942).
Identity check by Arrow Cross men (still from film, 1955)
Identity check by Arrow Cross men. This is not a contemporaneous photo, but a still from the filmBudapest Spring (1955).
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses in Budapest.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses in Budapest.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses in Budapest.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses in Budapest.
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men in Budapest.
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men in Budapest.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men in Budapest.
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men in Budapest.
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses in Budapest.
The skull of a victim of Arrow Cross men.
The skull of a victim of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men in the court of the Synagogue of Dohány street.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men in the court of the Synagogue of Dohány street.
Corpses in a concentration camp.
Corpses in a concentration camp.
Corpses in a concentration camp.
Corpses in a concentration camp.
The death of a Jewish forced laborer.
The death of a Jewish forced laborer.
Novy Sad, a street after shooting committed by the gendarmerie.
Novy Sad, a street after shooting committed by the gendarmerie.
Hungarian gendarmes are shooting Jews on the streets in Novy Sad.
Hungarian gendarmes are shooting Jews on the streets in Novy Sad.
Executions in Novy Sad in 1942.
Executions in Novy Sad in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanging (Novy Sad, 1942)
Hanging (Novy Sad, 1942)
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Victims of the ghetto (Budapest, 19 January 1945).
Victims of the ghetto (Budapest, 19 January 1945).
A victim of the Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944).
A victim of the Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944).
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944)
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944)
A cart full of corpses (Budapest, 1945)
A cart full of corpses (Budapest, 1945)
Wagon full of corpses (Budapest, 1945)
Wagon full of corpses (Budapest, 1945)
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944-1945)
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944-1945)
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944-1945)
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944-1945)
Murdered Jewish forced laborers at the end of 1944 in the Beregi forest at Füzesabony.
Murdered Jewish forced laborers at the end of 1944 in the Beregi forest at Füzesabony.
Exhumation of the bodies of Jewish forced laborers at Cservenka (November 5, 1957)
Exhumation of the bodies of Jewish forced laborers at Cservenka (November 5, 1957)
A group of objects found during the exhumation at Cservenka (November 5, 1957).
A group of objects found during the exhumation at Cservenka (November 5, 1957).
The identification of the corpse of 22 year old Magda Friedmann in Budapest.
The identification of the corpse of 22 year old Magda Friedmann in Budapest.
The grave-stone of Hanna Szenes in Budapest.
The grave-stone of Hanna Szenes in Budapest.
Patients and doctors murdered in the Jewish hospital in Maros street (Budapest, 1945).
Patients and doctors murdered in the Jewish hospital in Maros street (Budapest, 1945).
Corpse of a murdered Jew.
Corpse of a murdered Jew.
Funeral procession held for exhumed bodies of Jewish forced laborers (Budapest).
Funeral procession held for exhumed bodies of Jewish forced laborers (Budapest).
Exhumation from the depth of 60 cm in the forest of Kerecsend.
Exhumation from the depth of 60 cm in the forest of Kerecsend.
Exhumation in the forest of Kerecsend
Exhumation in the forest of Kerecsend
A corpse in a coffin in the forest of Kerecsend.
A corpse in a coffin in the forest of Kerecsend.
Re-examination: Dr. Németh
Re-examination: Dr. Németh and his colleague (in the forest of Kerecsend).
Exhumed corpse in the forest of Kerecsend.
Exhumed corpse in the forest of Kerecsend.
Corpses of a mother and her daughter in the forest of Kerecsend.
Corpses of a mother and her daughter in the forest of Kerecsend.
Taking 20 corpses to the cemetery of Eger from the forest of Kerecsend.
Taking 20 corpses to the cemetery of Eger from the forest of Kerecsend.
Coffins on the hill of the cemetery after the exhumation (Kerecsend).
Coffins on the hill of the cemetery after the exhumation (Kerecsend).
12 corpses in coffins (Kerecsend).
12 corpses in coffins (Kerecsend).
The lowering of the coffins to the grave (Eger).
The lowering of the coffins to the grave (Eger).
The funeral of the 26 martyrs in Eger.
The funeral of the 26 martyrs in Eger. They were murdered in the forest of Kerecsend. Mr. Székely the President of the Jewish Community of Eger delivers a speech.
The funeral of the 26 martyrs in Eger.
The funeral of the 26 martyrs in Eger. They were murdered in the forest of Kerecsend.
Tank, refugees
Tank, refugees
Street in the time of war.
Street in the time of war.
Taking photos of the victims in the ghetto (Budapest, 19.
Taking photos of the victims in the ghetto (Budapest, 19. January 1945).
Prisoners of war
Prisoners of war
Portrait of a victim of skin transplantation.
Portrait of a victim of skin transplantation.
Shoe sole made of a desecrated Torah.
Shoe sole made of a desecrated Torah.
Drum made from a desecrated Torah.
Drum made from a desecrated Torah.
The emptying of apartments of Jews in Sopron (1944).
The emptying of apartments of Jews in Sopron (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Jews marching towards the railway station in Kôszeg (1944).
Jews marching towards the railway station in Kôszeg (1944).
March of deportees to the railway station in Kôszeg (1944).
March of deportees to the railway station in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
A hiding Jew.
A hiding Jew.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
A ravaged home.
A ravaged home.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
Deportation: on the way to the railway station (Kôszeg, 1944).
Deportation: on the way to the railway station (Kôszeg, 1944).
Deportation (Balatonfüred, 1944).
Deportation (Balatonfüred, 1944).
Deportation (Balatonfüred, 1944).
Deportation (Balatonfüred, 1944).
Arrival at the concentration camp.
Arrival at the concentration camp.
Part of the camp.
Part of the camp.
Goldmark Hall (Budapest, 1945).
Goldmark Hall (Budapest, 1945).
Picture taken in Germany [?]
Picture taken in Germany [?]
The humiliating march of those who
The humiliating march of those who “dishonored the German race”.
Placard against Jewish lawyers and doctors.
Placard against Jewish lawyers and doctors.
A deportee (Auschwitz).
A deportee (Auschwitz).
Arrival at Auschwitz (1944).
Arrival at Auschwitz (1944).
A group of people arriving at Auschwitz (1944).
A group of people arriving at Auschwitz (1944).
Medical experiment.
Medical experiment.
A small child with tattooed arm.
A small child with tattooed arm.
People lined up to celebrate in a camp after the Second World War.
People lined up to celebrate in a camp after the Second World War.
Wreaths for the memory of the martyrs.
Wreaths for the memory of the martyrs.
Shooting in the back of the neck.
Shooting in the back of the neck.
SS execution.
SS execution.
Victim in a concentration camp.
Victim in a concentration camp.
Heap of corpses.
Heap of corpses.
A dead person beside the rails.
A dead person beside the rails.
Corpses in Dachau.
Corpses in Dachau.
Interior of a barrack (Dachau).
Interior of a barrack (Dachau).
Heap of corpses in Dachau.
Heap of corpses in Dachau.
Corpses in Dachau.
Corpses in Dachau.
Corpses in Dachau.
Corpses in Dachau.
Victims in Dachau.
Victims in Dachau.
Victims in Dachau.
Victims in Dachau.

Hungary admits Holocaust role

Hungary admits Holocaust role

January 27, 2014

Marton Dunai

Holocaust survivor and historian Randolph Braham.

Holocaust survivor and historian Randolph Braham. Photo: AP

Budapest: Hungarians collaborated with Nazis in sending nearly half a million Jews to their deaths, Hungary’s President said, in a rare public acknowledgement of a wartime past that Jewish groups say is often glossed over.

Earlier on Sunday, an American historian said he was returning an award he received from the previous head of state in protest at what he called the government’s attempt to erase Hungary’s role in the Holocaust.

In a statement prepared for Monday’s Holocaust Memorial Day, President Janos Ader said that if the war had gone according to the plans of Adolf Hitler and his Hungarian fascist allies, Jews would have been exterminated completely from Hungary.

The arrival and processing of a transport of Jewish people at Auschwitz-Birkenau in May 1944.

The arrival and processing of a transport of Jewish people at Auschwitz-Birkenau in May 1944. Photo: AP/Yad Vashem Photo Archives

“Auschwitz may be hundreds of kilometres from Hungary but it is part of Hungarian history,” Mr Ader wrote. “This death camp was the scene of the inhumane suffering, humiliation and death of nearly half a million of our compatriots.”

Jewish groups have criticised the centre-right government of Prime Minister Viktor Orban for what they see as its lacklustre attempt to fight anti-Semitism.

A Jewish group has threatened to boycott Holocaust commemorations over plans to erect a monument to the German occupation in 1944. It said that pushed the blame for the genocide solely onto Germans, obscuring the role of Hungarians.

A Hungarian woman at the wall of victims at the Holocaust Museum in Budapest.

A Hungarian woman at the wall of victims at the Holocaust Museum in Budapest. Photo: AFP

Mr Orban, the favourite to win re-election in April, has said he would do everything to stamp out growing anti-Semitism in a country where a far-right party, Jobbik, again openly uses anti-Semitic rhetoric and last November unveiled a statue of wartime leader Miklos Horthy, an ally of Hitler.

“Seventy years ago, after our nation’s German occupation, the Nazi overlords and the Hungarian authorities that collaborated with them seemed to fulfil the will of Hitler’s Nazi Germany,” Mr Ader wrote. “In barely half a year they mercilessly completed ghettos and deported almost the entire rural Jewry.”

Because the deportations were halted in July 1944, tens of thousands of Jews were spared the gas chamber, mostly in Budapest, and the central European capital today is home to the largest indigenous Jewish community in Europe.

Before Mr Ader’s statement was released, veteran Romanian-born historian Randolph Braham, who settled in the United States after World War II, said he was returning Hungary’s Order of Merit which he received in 2011 for his work, including on the Hungarian Holocaust.

“I have followed the latest developments in Hungary with great concern,” Mr Braham wrote in an open letter posted on several news websites. “I was shocked, as were surely others, at the past few years’ campaign to whitewash history.”

“They wish … to excuse Hungary from the responsibility for the active role it played in annihilating nearly 600,000 of its Jewish citizens.”

In Hungary the Holocaust began years before it came under direct German occupation in 1944. Under Horthy, there were anti-Jewish pogroms, several reported instances of mass killings and the deportation of thousands of Jews to labour camps.

Occupying German forces then received willing help from Hungarian authorities in deporting 437,000 Jews within a few weeks in 1944.

“[The] national monument to the German occupation … is a cowardly attempt to deflect attention from the role the Horthy regime played in the annihilation of Jews,” Mr Braham wrote. “It blurs the Holocaust with what they say is the suffering of Hungarians during the German occupation … which was met with general applause rather than resistance, as proven by historical facts.”

Reuters

National Socialist Movement Implodes Amid Allegations of Satanism (2006 by Bigots_Suck (bigots_suck) Live Journal)

The following article (behind cut) is borrowed from the website of our friends at One People’s Project. Since this article was posted Bill White has started his own Nazi group, the American National Socialist Workers Party, and has appointed himself commander of this fledgling group, or has been appointed such by the sycophants who followed him in the wake of his exodus from the National Socialist Movement.

One of the websites for the ANSWP contains the following statement, which we think is hilarious. (It also is further evidence of the often bizarre world that is the white supremacist movement.):

“On July 18, 2006, 21 former state and unit leaders of the National Socialist Movement, along with 96 comrades, declared a break with Jeffrey Schoep and his National Socialist Movement, having cited him for numerous offenses against the party, not the least of which was his continued patronizing of convicted sex offenders, his own personal checkered history, and his 15-year lond relationship with the former Chairman, Cliff Herrington, who was married to a non-white woman and actively engaged in Satan worship – Satan worship which included sexual acts with young teenagers.”

The first issue of the ANSWP’s magazine, National Socialist, features a full-color photo of White, in all his pudgy glory, on the cover. (You can see it behind the cut.)

http://onepeoplesproject.com/site/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=995&Itemid=2

As you probably already know, the latest chapter in the Misadventures of Bill White is coming to a close. A guy who always swore off joining groups, he joined the National Socialist Movement (NSM) sometime in the spring of last year, and quickly made himself the center of NSM attention. Now we are talking about a group who has nothing but misfits and criminals among the leadership, let alone the ranks, including a convicted sex offender who was running the Indiana chapter. When Bill signed on, we just thought this was going to be too easy for us. Back in October, when the NSM sparked that riot in Toledo, we had a poll asking how long would it be before they went the way of all the other hate groups. 39.9% said a little more than three years if they’re lucky, 37% said less than a year, 11% said one year, while 3.7% and 3.5 said two and three years respectively. To those that gave them a little more than three years, you don’t know Bill White the way we know Bill White!

The recent infighting that led to the expulsion of Bill White from the NSM was something that came about courtesy of the antifa cabal that is One People’s Project, One People’s Radio, and Citizens Against Hate! All Tony Willow of CAH had to do is simply get hold of Hal Turner and tell him something a little unsettling about NSM, namely that the wife of Chairman Clifford Herrington is involved in Satanism, and that the p.o. box of her organization, the Joy of Satan is also the one that the NSM uses! Turner is Catholic, and every now and then claims Christian Identity as well, so this was a little too much for him. He gets into a argument with Bill, and Bill talks trash on him on [his website] Overthrow[.com], which also meant trashing Christian Identity. THAT meant pissing off people he didn’t mean to piss off, who responded by calling Bill out, which meant Bill had to trash THEM on Overthrow, and when the NSM tried to reign him in, he went after THEM, and the rest –and Bill – is history. In other words, we manipulated the living HELL out of these morons! We didn’t lie, we didn’t suggest anything illegal be done, facts were presented, and that was all it took. Citizens Against Hate has compiled all of this for your reading enjoyment, and all the NSM players are definitely keeping everything going, so we will keep having developments. One development that came out of this was a revelation: John Snyder, that Indiana State Leader we mentioned, has been allowed back into the NSM! That means Bill White was the least of their problems, and they will soon go back into the obscurity that they enjoyed before he went rally crazy. We so love summertime Nazi blues!
Citizens Against Hate

Developments continue to occur in this bizarre tale of witches and the NSM, and just a little while ago, Jeff Schoep, Commander of the National Socialist Movement, issued the following statements on the events as they occurred:

nsmworld@yahoogroups.com
From: “Commander NSM” < nsmcommander@hotmail.com >
Date: Sat, 08 Jul 2006 15:41:14 -0500
Subject: [nsmworld] Expulsion of disruptive element from NSM

Comrades,

NS greetings, as some of you know last night Chairman Herrington and I suspended Bill White from the NSM, asking him to reign in his disruptive behavior, cease attacks on various Religions, and other Pro-White Organizations. All NSM members are held to certain standards, and Bill was repeatedly breaking the rules of conduct, basically ignoring rules, and regulations set in place by the NSM. The suspension was meant to inforce those rules, and let Bill know that he could not simply engage in whatever destructive, antagonistic behavior he chose.

Instead of choosing to correct the disruptive behavior and lying, Bill chose to rebel against the NSM rules of conduct. In his rebellion of one, he goes on to level baseless attacks on my charachter, and others he wrongly feels were trying to oust him, and attempting fruitlessly to pull others down into the fray.

The truth of the matter is, Bill would not adhear to NSM rules and regulations. Instead of adjusting to discipline and taking the moral high ground Bill has demanded apologies, and made other demands.

The Party does not respond to demands, and did not respond to the demand that we purge Bill White from the Party by literally countless individuals and groups that warned us he would stab us in the back. I have always been one to give people a fair chance to prove themselves, and I was warned that Bill would stab us in the back the first time something didn’t go his way. His suspension was a test of his Loyalty, his actions after the suspension prove he is not Loyal to the NSM, its members, or its Leaders.

The end result is the expulsion of Bill White from the Party.

The NSM expects its members to be Loyal and trustworthy, without Loyalty or trust you have nothing, and are nothing. With that being said, I suggest everyone else gets back to work and focuses on the positive work of the NSM, and turn a blind eye to the rumour mill of disruption and antagonism.

Everything is a question mark these days with the NSM–but in a rather expected, yet comical move, Bill White claims to have resigned from the National Socialist Movement today. Citing the weakness of Jeff Schoep, being told what to print and what to remove, and an ongoing attack from Richard Brunson, April Braun Patterson, and, of all people, John Snyder to oust him, Bill stepped down and promised to go back to running Overthrow.com full time.

Instead of choosing to correct the disruptive behavior and lying, Bill chose to rebel against the NSM rules of conduct. In his rebellion of one, he goes on to level baseless attacks on my charachter, and others he wrongly feels were trying to oust him, and attempting fruitlessly to pull others down into the fray.

The truth of the matter is, Bill would not adhear to NSM rules and regulations. Instead of adjusting to discipline and taking the moral high ground Bill has demanded apologies, and made other demands.

The Party does not respond to demands, and did not respond to the demand that we purge Bill White from the Party by literally countless individuals and groups that warned us he would stab us in the back. I have always been one to give people a fair chance to prove themselves, and I was warned that Bill would stab us in the back the first time something didn’t go his way. His suspension was a test of his Loyalty, his actions after the suspension prove he is not Loyal to the NSM, its members, or its Leaders.

The end result is the expulsion of Bill White from the Party.

The NSM expects its members to be Loyal and trustworthy, without Loyalty or trust you have nothing, and are nothing. With that being said, I suggest everyone else gets back to work and focuses on the positive work of the NSM, and turn a blind eye to the rumour mill of disruption and antagonism.</blockquote>

Everything is a question mark these days with the NSM – but in a rather expected, yet comical move, Bill White claims to have resigned from the National Socialist Movement today. Citing the weakness of Jeff Schoep, being told what to print and what to remove, and an ongoing attack from Richard Brunson, April Braun Patterson, and, of all people, John Snyder to oust him, Bill stepped down and promised to go back to running Overthrow.com full time.

As we knew would happen, the Satanist news sent shock-waves through the NSM rank-and-file and has rancored many of the members who adhere to Christian Identity. Bill White’s harrangue on Christian Identity being “stupid” and only 10% of the believers being worthy of his friendship along with other remarks, certainly caused him to lose favor with many long-time members.

As Citizens Against Hate and One People’s Radio were the first to bring you the news of a connection between the National Socialist Movement and Satanism, we are happy to see that we have been hugely instrumental in causing the dissention and the resignation of the Spokesperson and other members.

The events, as they unfold, should provide us with a lot of entertainment – and the issue of Satanism and the Chairman is a long way from being dead. Stay tuned because it ain’t over till it’s over.

Someone anonymous pointed out that not all Satanist are nazis. There are many Satanists who oppose neo-nazis. Here’s a link to a page full of informative and educational articles that is well worth reading! Amongst the articles you’ll even find this National Socialist Movement tidbit:

“Even Clifford Herrington, husband of Joy of Satan founder Maxine Dietrich, once made a speech about how the U.S.A. should be home only to “white European Christians!” (Here’s an audio file containing a brief excerpt.) Herrington was chairman of the National Socialist Movement (NSM), which, according to the Anti-Defamation League, was “America’s Largest Neo-Nazi Group” as of June 2006. Only a month later, the NSM fell apart when Clifford Herrington’s connection to the Joy of Satan Ministries became public knowledge. (See Nazis Falling on the website of the Southern Poverty Law Center.) The most popular religion among neo-Nazis and other extremist White Nationalists, at least here in the U.S.A., is Christian Identity. For more about neo-Nazism’s natural affinity for the more intolerant forms of Christianity, see my separate article on Nazism and Christianity.”

http://theisticsatanism.com/politics/Nazi/

Has anyone seen the video of Hilter’s speech promoting Christianity? LMAO

christian_hitler   our-movement-is-christian-adolf-hitler-large